第三十八章 短语动词
发布日期:2021-07-22 22:18:22 浏览次数:4 分类:技术文章

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362 引言
 
A 在现代英语中,常常将介词或副词置于某一动词之后,以便能够表达多种不同的意思:
give away送给某人
give up放弃,停止(一种习惯或某种努力)
look after照顾
look for寻找,寻求
look out小心,注意
学生没有必要去区分这些短语动词究竟是由动词+介词还是由动词+副词组成的,但必须要把这些习惯用法看做是一个整体。
同时,要掌握每一短语动词是及物的(即需要有宾语)或是不及物的(即不需要宾语)。这很重要。
look for是及物短语动词:
I am looking for my passport.
我在找我的护照。
look out是不及物短语动词:
look out!This ice isn’t safe!
当心!这冰危险!
本章后文中的每一短语动词都标有“tr”(transitive,及物)或“intr”(intransitive,不及物)符号。每一短语动词的用法举例将有助于表明二者之间的差别。
注意:一个短语动词可能有两种或两种以上的不同的意思,也可能其中一个或几个是及物的,另外一个或几个是不及物的。如take off可意为“拿掉”,所以它是及物的:
He took off his hat.
他摘下他的帽子。
take off也可意为“起飞”(用于飞机)。这时它是不及物的:
The plane took off at ten o’clock.
飞机是10点钟起飞的。
B 及物短语动词:宾语的位置
作宾语的名词通常位于及物短语动词之后:
I am looking for my glasses.
我正在找我的眼镜。
作宾语的名词与某些短语动词连用时,可位于句末,也可以紧跟在动词之后,即用于小品词前。可以说:
He took off his coat./He took his coat off.
他脱掉外衣。
宾格代词有时位于短语动词之后:
I am looking for them.
我正在找他们。
但宾格代词在大多数情况下紧跟在动词之后:
He took it off.
他把它脱掉了。
宾格代词常位于下列小品词之前:up,down, in, out, away,off和on(词组call on拜访除外)。
每一习语下表明用法的例句将以下列方法标明作宾语的名词或代词的各种可能的位置:
I’ll give this old coat away.(give away this old coat/give it away)
我将把这件旧外衣送掉。
即,在使用这一短语动词时,作宾语的名词既可位于away之前,也可位于其后;而宾格代词只可位于away之前。在只给出一个例句时,读者可以推定宾格代词的位置与作宾语的名词位置相同。
C 这些短语动词后面的宾语如果是动词,则应使用动词的动名词形式:
He kept on blowing his horn.
他不断地吹喇叭。
通常使用动名词之处,将举例说明。
请注意,某些短语动词后面应带动词不定式:
It is up to yon to decide this for yourself.
这事全由你自己决定。
Some of the younger members called on the minister to resign.
某些较年轻的议员要求部长辞职。
The lecturer set out to show that most illnesses were avoldable.
讲师开始表明多数疾病是可以预防的。
go on既可以带不定式,也可以带动名词,但二者的意义有相当大的不同。参见第270节A。

 

363 动词+介词/副词的组合

 

account

account fortr)(为某事)给出充分的理由,圆满地解释(某种行为或某项支出),做出交代:

A treasurer must account for the money he spends

财务负责人必须对他支付的款项做出交代。

He has behavd in the most extraordinary wayI cant account for hisactions at allI cant account for his behaving like that

他的行为极为奇怪,我完全无法解释他的行动/我无法为他那样的举动做出解释。

allow

allow fortr)预先为某事留有余地,考虑到(常指某种额外的需要、支出、耽搁等):

It is 800 kilometres and I drive at 100 kph., so Ill be there in eighthours

But youll have to allow for delays going through towns and for stopsfor refuelling

—距离是800公里,而我的车速是每小时100公里,因此我八小时后可以到那里。

—可是你得把通过市镇和停车加油所耽搁的时间考虑进去。

Allowing for depreciation your car should be worth2000 this timenext year

如果考虑到折旧,你的车明年此时应当值2000英镑。

answer

answer backintr),answer somebody back反驳别人的责难,回嘴顶撞:

FatherWhy were you so late last night You werent in till2 am

父亲:你昨晚回家为什么这么晚?你直到凌晨两点钟才回来。

SonYou should have been asleep

儿子:那时候你本该睡着了。

FatherDont answer me backAnswer my question

父亲:别跟我顶嘴。回答我的问题。

ask

ask after/for somebody 探询有关……的信息,(向第三者)问某人健康如何:

I met Tom at the partyhe asked after you

我在聚会上遇见了汤姆;他问你好。(问你健康如何/问你过得怎么样)

ask for

a)寻找某人并想和他/她说话,要求见到某人:

Go to the office and ask for my secretary

到办公室去,找我的秘书。

b)要求,索要:

The men asked for more pay and shorter hours

工人们要求增加工资,减少工时。

ask someone in(宾语在in之前)请某人进来:

He didnt ask me inhe kept me standing at the door while he read the message

他没有让我进去;他径自看那张条子,让我站在门口等着。

ask someone out(宾语在out之前)请某人出去参加娱乐活动或吃饭(特别是在公众地方吃饭):

She had a lot of friends and was usually asked out in the eveningsso she seldom spent an evening at home

她有很多朋友,晚上常被邀请外出,因此她晚上很少在家里呆着。

back

back awayintr)慢慢地退回去(因为遇到某种危险或不愉快的事):

When he took a gun out everyone backd away nervously

他拿出枪来时,大家都紧张地向后退去。

back outintr)退出(某事先已同意的联合行动),停止或拒绝给予所允诺的帮助或支持:

He agreed to help but backed out when he found how difficult it was

他本来同意给予帮助的,但在发现事情有多么困难之后就打退堂鼓了。

back somebody up从道义上或行动上支持:

The headmaster never backed up his staff.(backed them upIf a parentcomplained about a teacher he assumed that the teacher was in thewrong

校长从来不给教员们撑腰。凡是有家长给老师提意见时,他总是认为一定是老师不对。

be

be againsttr)反对(常带动名词):

Im for doing nothing till the police arrive./Im against doing anythingtill the police arrive

我赞成在警察来到以前不采取行动。/我反对在警察到来以前采取任何行动。

be awayintr)(至少有一个晚上)不在家,不在某地

be backintr)在长期或短暂地离开之后回到原地:

I want to see Mrs PittIs she in

NoIm afraid shes out at the moment./NoIm afraid shes awayfor the weekend

When will she be back

Shell be back in half an hour/next week

—我想见皮特夫人。她在吗?

—不,恐怕她现在不在。/不,我想她外出度周末了。

—她什么时候回来?

—她半小时后/下周回来。

be fortr)赞成(常带动名词)

be inintr)在家或在某个建筑物内

be in fortr)将要遇上(常跟某种令人不愉快的事):

Did you listen to the weather forecast Im afraid were in for a bumpyflight

你听气象预报没有?恐怕我们这次航班要很颠簸。

If you think that the work is going to be easy youre in for a shock

如果你以为这工作将容易,那么你可要大吃一惊了。

be outintr)短时间不在家/不在某个建筑物里,但并不在外过夜

be overintr)结束:

The storm is over nowwe can go on

暴风雨过去了;我们可以继续走了。

be upintr)起床了:

Dont expect her to answer the doorbell at eight oclock on SundaymorningShe wont be up

星期日早上8点钟时,别指望她听见门铃响会来开门。她那时还没有起床呢。

be up totr)体力或智力足以……(宾语常用it,但也可用动名词):

After his illness the Minister continued in office though he was no longerup to the work/up to doing the work

部长生病后继续任职,但他已力不胜任了。

be up to somethingsome mischiefsome trickno good从事或忙于某种调皮的、不正道的或有害的事/捣鬼:

Dont trust himhe is up to somethingsome trick

别信他;他在搞鬼/在耍诡计。

The boys are very quietI wonder what they are up to

男孩子们无声无息了。我不知他们在捣什么鬼。

注意:这里up to的宾语常是某一很不确定的词语,如上面例句所示。这个习语从来不与某一具体明确的事连用。

it is up to someone(常带动词不定式)此事是某人的职责:

It is up to the government to take action on violence

采取行动对付暴力行为,是政府职责所在。

I have helped you as much as I can Now it is up to you

我已尽我所能地帮助你了。现在该看你自己了。(你得靠自己的努力干下去。)

bear

bear outtr)证实,提供证明:

This report bears out my theory.(bears my theory outbears it out

这报告证实了我的理论。

bear upintr)听到坏消息仍能勇敢支撑,掩饰感情或忧伤:

The news of her death was a great shock to him but he bore up bravely and none of us realized how much he felt it

她故去的消息对他来讲是个打击,但他勇敢地支撑着,我们谁也没意识到他的感受该有多么强烈。

blow

blow outtr)吹熄:

The wind blew out the candle.(blew the candle outblew it out

风吹灭了蜡烛。

blow uptrintr

a)用爆炸的方法毁灭,爆炸,被毁:

They blew up the bridges so that the enemy couldnt follow them.(blew the bridges upblew them up

他们炸毁了桥,好让敌人不能追上他们。

Just as we got to the bridge it blew up

我们刚到桥头,桥就炸掉了。

b)充气,打气,使膨胀:

The children blew up their balloons and threw them into the air.( blew the balloons upblew them up

孩子们把气球吹鼓了,扔向空中。

boil

boil awayintr)(液体)因沸腾而挥发完,熬干:

I put the kettle on the gas ring and then went away and forgot about it

When I returned the water had all boiled away and the flame had burnta hole in the kettle

我把壶放在煤气灶上,然后就走开把这事忘掉了。我回来时,水都烧干了,火把壶底烧出了一个窟窿。

boil overintr)(液体因沸腾而)溢到容器外面:

The milk boiled over and there was a horrible smell of burning

牛奶潽了,烧糊的味道极为难闻。

break

break down a door etc.用强力敲破或撞破:

The firemen had to break down the door to get into the burning house

break the door down/break it down

消防员不得不破门而入以便到着火的房子里边去。

break down figures将一数目分别列在不同项目下以作进一步说明:

You say that 10000 people use this libraryCould you break that downinto age-groups

你说有10000人使用这所图书馆。你能否按年龄组将数字分解一下?(即说出有多少人是25岁以下的,有多少人是50岁以上的等等)

break downintr)由于有缺陷或强度不够而坏掉或不再正常运作:

a)常指人暂时感情支持不住:

He broke down when telling me about his sons tragic death

他向我谈到他儿子惨死的事时,不能自已了。(他失声痛哭了。)

b)指丧失精神上的抵抗力:

At first he refused to admit his guilt but when he was shown the evidencehe broke down and confessed

起初他否认有罪,但给他看证据时,他招架不住而供认了。

c)指身体健康状况严重恶化:

After years of overwork his health broke down and he had to retire

在多年劳累之后,他的身体垮了,只好退休。

d)常指机器坏了:

The car broke down when we were driving through the desert and it tookus two days to repair it

我们驾车横越沙漠时,汽车坏了,花了两天才修好。

e)指交涉或谈判的破裂:

The negotiations broke down because neither side would compromise

因为双方都不肯妥协,谈判破裂了。

break inintr), break intotr

a)用暴力强行进入:

Thieves broke in and stole the silver

窃贼破门而入,偷走了银器。

The house was broken into when the owner was on holiday

屋主外出度假时,有贼破门而入。

b)突然说话打断别人:

I was telling them about my travels when he broke in with a story of hisown

我正在告诉他们我旅途中的事,他忽然插嘴讲起他自己的故事来。

break in  a young horsepony etc.(tr)训练(马等)以供驾驭使用:

You cannot ride or drive a horse safely before he has been broken in

在没有把马训练好以前,不管骑它还是用它驾车都是不安全的。

break offtr/intr)解开,破开,使分裂开或自己破裂开:

He took a bar of chocolate and broke off a bit.(broke a bit off/broke itoff

他拿出一板巧克力,掰下了一小块。

A piece of rock broke off and fell into the pool at the foot of the cliff

一块岩石断裂开,掉到悬崖脚下的池塘里。

break offtr)终止,停止,取消(常跟协议、协商或谈判等):

Ann has broken off her engagement to Tom.(broken her engagement off/broken it off

安已经取消了同汤姆的婚约。

break offintr)突然停止说话,突然住口:

They were in the middle of an argument but broke off when someonecame into the room

他们正争吵不休,但有人进屋时他们突然住口了。

break outintr

a)开始,爆发(常用于诸如战争、流行病、火灾等不好的事):

War broke out on 4 Angust

战争于84日爆发。

b)用暴力方法从监狱等地逃出:

They locked him up in a room but he broke out

他们把他锁在一间屋里,可是他强行逃出了。(砸开门跑掉了)

The police are looking for two men who broke out of prison last night

警方正在搜捕昨天晚上越狱逃跑的两名男子。

break uptrintr)(使)瓦解,(使)解体:

If that ship stays there she will break upshe will be broken up by thewaves

那艘船如果停泊在那里,就会破的/会被浪头打散的。

The old ship was towed away to be broken up and sold as scrap

那艘旧船被拖走以便拆散当废铁卖了。

Divorce breaks up a lot of familiesbreaks families upbreaks them up

离婚拆散了许多家庭。

break upintr)(用于学校的学期、会议、聚会等)散会,放假:

The school broke up on 30 July and all the boys went home for the holi- days

学校在730日放假了,男孩子们都回家度假去了。

The meeting broke up in confusion

会议在一片混乱中散了。

bring

bring someone roundtr;宾语常位于round之前)

a)说服某人接受以前所反对的建议:

After a lot of argument I brought him round to my point of view

在争辩了很久之后,我说服他转念同意了我的看法。

b)使恢复知觉:

She fainted with the pain but a little brandy soon brought her round

她痛得昏厥了,但是一小点白兰地很快使她恢复了知觉。

bring a person or thing roundtr;宾语常位于 round之前)把人或物带到某人的住所去:

I have finished that book that you lent me Ill bring it roundto your housetonight

你借给我的书我已经看完了;我今晚上把它带(到你家里)来。

bring uptr

a)教育培养儿童:

She brought up her children to be truthful.(brought her children upbrought them up

她教导她的孩子们要真诚无欺。

b)提起,谈到:

At the last committee meetingthe treasurer brought up the question of raising the annual subscription.(brought the question upbrought it up

委员会上一次开会时,财务主管提出了提高会员年费的问题。

burn

burn downtrintr)(完全)焚毁(指建筑物):

The mob burnt down the embassy.(burnt the embassy downburnt it down

乱民把大使馆焚毁了。

The hotel burnt down before help came

旅馆在援助到来以前就烧毁了。

call

1 call走访,拜访

call at走访一个地方:

I called at the bank and arranged to transfer some money

我到银行去了一下,安排了款项过户的事宜。

call for到一个地方去取物或接人:

I am going to a pop concert with TomHe is calling for me at eightso I must be ready then

我要和汤姆去听流行歌曲音乐会。他8点钟来接我,因此我必须届时准备好。

Lets leave our suitcases in the left luggage office and call for themlater on when we have the car

咱们可以把行李存放在行李暂存处,等以后有车用时再来取。

call inintr)同 look in和口语化的 drop in意思一样,是来访,来坐坐的意思:

Call inLook in on your way home and tell me how the interviewwent

你回家的路上来看我一下,告诉我面谈进行得如何。

call on拜访某人:

He called on all the housewives in the area and asked them to sign thepetition

他走访了这一地区的所有主妇,要求他们在请愿书上签名。

2 call forinon的其他意思

call fortr)要求,需要(这里的主语常是一个不用来指人的单词或短语,如 the situation形势/this sort of work这种工作/this此事等,宾语则常是一个表示某种性质的词,如 courage勇气/patience耐心/a steady hand稳当不抖的手):

The situation calls for tact

对付这一形势要有策略。

Youve got the job This calls for a celebration

你得到这份工作了!这需要庆祝一下。

但这里也可以用一个用来指人的主语:

The workers are calling for strike action

工人们正要求采取罢工行动。

The relations of the dead men are calling for an inquiry

死者们的亲属要求调查真相。

call in a personcall a person in派人去找某人来/请某人来家服务(send forcall in更显得主语权势大,因此callin是更有礼貌的说法):

It was too late to call in an electriciancall an electrician incall him in

找电工来已太晚了。

There is some mystery about his death the police have been calledin

他的死有点儿蹊跷;已经去找警察来了。

call on somebody(常带动词不定式)要某人做某事/要某人给予帮助(较为正式的提出要求的方式,主要用于正式场合或演讲中,意味着提出要求的人认为所号召的事是另一人的责任):

The president called upon his people to make sacrifices for the good oftheir country

总统号召人民为祖国的利益做出牺牲。

The chairman called on the secretary to read the minutes of the lastmeeting

主席要求秘书朗读上次会议的记录。

3 call的其他词组

call offtr)取消尚未开始的事,放弃已在进行中的事:

They had to call off the match as the ground was too wet to play on

call the match offcall it off

因为场地太湿无法比赛,人们不得不取消这次比赛。

When the fog got thicker the search was called off

雾愈来愈浓了,只得放弃了搜索。

call outtr)召唤某人出来处理外面的事(常用于指部队被召集走出营房对付民众骚乱):

The police couldnt control the mob so troops were called out

警察无法控制乱民,因此出动了军队。

The Fire Brigade was called out several times on the night of 5 November to put out fires started by fireworks

115日晚上,消防队多次奉召出动,以扑灭因燃放焰火而引起的火灾。

Doctors dont much like being called out at night

医生们不太喜欢夜间出诊。

call uptr

a)征去服兵役:

In countries where there is conscription men are called up at the age of eighteen.(call up mencall men upcall them up

在实行征兵制的国家里,18岁的男子要应征服役。

b)给……打电话:

I called Tom up and told him the news.(calld up Tomcalled him up

我给汤姆打电话,把消息告诉他了。

care

not to care abouttr)对……淡漠,不关心……:

The professor said that he was interested only in researchhe didnt really care about students

教授说他只对研究感兴趣;他并不真的关心学生。

care fortr

a)喜欢(很少用于肯定句):

He doent care for films about war

他不喜欢战争影片。

b)照看(除被动态外,较少使用):

The house looked well cared for=had been well looked after/was ingood condition).

房子看起来照管得很好。

carry

carry onintr)继续(常指工作或职责):

I cant carry on alone any longerIll have to get help

我无法再一个人继续下去了;我得找人帮忙。

carry on withtr)与上用法相似:

The doctor told her to carry on with the treatment

医生告诉她应该继续这种疗法。

carry outtr)履行(职责),服从(命令),执行(指令),(把威胁要做的事)付诸行动:

You are not meant to think for yourselfyou are here to carry out my or-ders

你们的职责不是自己思考;叫你们来这里是要你们执行我的命令。

The Water Board carried out their threat to cut off our water supply

自来水公司董事会把他们的威胁付诸行动,停止供应我们水了。(他们威胁要这样做,也真的这样做了。)

He read the instructions but he didnt carry them out

他看了指示,但没有遵照执行。

catch

catch up withtr),catch uptrintr)赶上但没超过:

I started last in the race but I soon caught up with the others.(caught them upcautht up

我在赛跑中最后一个起跑,但不久就赶上了其他人。

Youve missed a whole termyoull have to work hard to catch up withthe rest of the class.(catch them upcatch up

你缺了整整一学期的课,得努力学习以便赶上同班的其他人。

clean

clean outtr a roomcupboarddrawer etc.彻底清理打扫(房间/碗柜/抽屉等):

I must clean out the spare room.(clean the spare room out/clean it out

我得把那间备用房(客房)彻底清扫一下。

clean uptr a mess eg anything spilt清扫(脏物,如撒出的东西):

Clean up any spilt paint.(clean the spilt paint upclean it up

如果有溅出来的油漆,把它收拾干净。

clean upintr)同上用法相同:

These painters always clean up when theyve finished

这几位油漆工完工之后总要把场地打扫干净。

clear

clear awaytr)把物件拿开以便腾出地方:

Could you clear away these papers?(clear these papers awayclear them away

你能不能把这些文件清除开?

clear awayintr)散开:

The clouds soon cleared away and it became quite warm

云很快就散开了,天气变得相当暖和。

clear offintr)走开(指室外) clear outintr)走开(指室内)二者都是口语用法;作为命令时这样说是相当不礼貌的:

You clear off,’ said the farmer angrily.‘Youve no right to put your caravans in my field without even asking my permission.’

“你们给我走开,”农民愤怒地说,“你们没有权利连我的许可都没征得就把住人的大篷车停在我的地里。”

Clear out If I find you in this building againIll report you to the po-lice

走开!你要再到这幢建筑里来,我就将你报警了。

clear outtr)把(房间/碗柜/抽屉等)腾空以便放别的东西:

Ill clear out this drawer and you can put your things in it.( clear this drawer outclear it out

我会把这个抽屉腾空,这样你就能把你的东西放在里面了。

clear upintr)有云或雨后天晴了:

The sky looks a bit cloudy now but I think it will clear up

现在天看来有点阴,但我想天会晴的。

clear uptrintr)收拾整齐干净:

When you are cooking its best to clear up as you goinstead of leaving everything to the end and having a terrible pile of things to deal with

烹调时,最好是边干边收拾,而不要把活留到最后而剩下一大堆东西要打扫收拾。

Clear up this mess.(clear this mess upclear it up

把这堆乱糟糟的东西收拾干净。

clear uptr

a)完成(某种尚待完成的工作):

I have some letters which I must clear up before I leave tonight

有几封信我今天晚上走以前必须写完。

b)侦破(不可思议的怪事、案件等):

In a great many detective stories when the police are baffled an amateurdetective comes along and clears up the mystery.(clears it up

在许多侦探小说中,当警察束手无策时,来了个业余侦探,把案子给破了。

close

close downtr/intr)永远关闭,停业(指商店或买卖等):

Trade was so bad that many small shops closed down and big shops closedsome of their branches down.(closed down some branches/closed themdown

市面很差,许多小店停业了,大商店也关了一些分店。

close inintr)逼近,从四面凑近(常用于雾、夜色、敌人等):

As the mist was closing in we decided to stay where we were

由于雾越来越逼近,我们决定留在原地不动。

close upintr)缩小间距(指一行人):

If you children closed up a bit thered be room for another one on thisseat

你们几个孩子要是挤一挤,这座位上还能加一个人。

come

come acrossupontr)碰巧发现,碰巧找到:

When I was looking for my passport I came across these old photographs

我在找护照时碰巧找到了这些旧相片。

come along/onintr)和我一起来,陪伴我去(常用来敦促犹豫不决的人或拖拖拉拉的人):

Come onor well be late

快点,否则我们要迟到了。

come awayintr)(和我一起)走/离开:

Come away now Its time to go home

快走吧。该回家了。

come awayoffintr)自行脱落:

When I pickd up the teapot the handle came away in my hand

我拿起茶壶时,茶壶掉了而只剩茶壶柄在我手里。

come inintr),come into tr)进入:

Someone knocked at my door and I said,‘Come in.’

有人敲我的门,我说:“进来。”

Come into the garden and Ill show you my roses

到花园里来,我给你看我的玫瑰花。

come offintr

a)(计划或阴谋)成功(用于否定句):

Im afraid that scheme of yours wont come offIt needs more capitalthan you have available

恐怕你那个计划不会成功。它需要的投资不是你能拿得出来的。

b 发生,按预先安排的那样发生:

When is the wedding coming off

Next June

—婚礼什么时候举行?

6月份。

如果我们说The duchess was to have opened the bazaar(公爵夫人本来是要为义卖主持开幕仪式的),我们的意思是说计划是那样订的,但没有实现(她本安排好要去为它揭幕,但后来不得不取消这一安排)。

c)(话剧、展览等)结束一轮演出或展出:

Lady windermeres Fanis coming off next weekYoud better hurryif you want to see it

《少奶奶的扇子》下周要结束演出了。你要想看的话得抓紧点。

come outintr

a)被揭露或发觉(这里的主语常是the truth真相/the facts事实/the whol story 全部内情等;并且一般指有关人士想竭力掩盖的事实即丑闻等):

They deceived everybody till they quarrelled among themselvesthen onepublicly denounced the others and the whole truth came out

他们把大家都骗了,直到后来内讧起来,其中一个人公开揭发了别人,这才真相大白。

b)(书籍)发行:

Her new novel will be coming out in time for the Christmas sales

她的新小说将赶在圣诞节购物潮时发行。

c)(污渍)消除,洗掉:

Tomato stains dont usually come out

西红柿污渍一般洗不净。

come roundintr

a)终于接受以前所反对的建议:

Her father at first refused to let her study abroad but he came roundto itin the end

她父亲起初反对她去外国念书,但终于回心转意了。(他说可以让她去。)

b)到某人的家里来:

Ill come round after dinner and tell you the plan

我晚饭后来转一下,把计划说给你听。

come round/tointrto重读) 恢复知觉:

When we found him he was unconscious but he came round/to in half anhour and explained that he had been attacked and robbed

我们发现他时他已失去知觉,但是半小时后他恢复了知觉,说他遭到殴打抢劫。

come upintr

a 升到水面,生长出来:

A diver with an aqualung doesnt have to keep coming up for airhe canstay underwater for quite a long time

备有潜水供氧器的潜水员无需不断升出水面呼吸;他可以在水下停留相当长的时间。

Weeds are coming up everywhere

杂草到处蔓生。

b)被提到:

The question of the caretakers wages came up at the last meeting

在上次会议中提到了看楼人的工资问题。

come upintr),come up totr)走近,来到能说话的近处:

A policeman was standing a few yards awayHe came up to me and said,‘You cant park here.’

几码外站着一位警察。他走过来并对我说:“你不能把车子停放在这里。”

crop

crop upintr)出现,意外地或偶然地出现(主语常是一个抽象名词如difficulties困难/the subject题目或是一个代词):

At first all sorts of difficulties cropped up and delayed usLater we learnthow to anticipate these

起初冒出来了各式各样的困难,耽搁了我们。后来我们学会了如何为这些困难预作准备。

cut

cut down a tree 砍倒树木:

If you cut down all the trees you will ruin the land.(cut the trees down/ cut them down

你要是砍倒所有的树木,就会把土地给毁了。

cut downtr 减少数量:

We must cut down expenses or well be getting into debt

我们得减少支出,否则就要负债了。

This article is too long,’said the editor.‘Could you cut it down to2000 words?’

“这篇文章太长了,”编辑说,“你能不能把它缩到两千字?”

cut inintr)在车距极近的不安全情况下并行抢道并插到另一辆车前面:

Accidents are often caused by drivers cutting in

车祸常由司机抢道插到别的车前面而引起。

cut offtr)切断、停止供应(宾语可以是水、电、煤气,也可以是被停供的人):

The Company has cut off our electricity supply because we havent paidour bill.(cut our supply off/cut it off

因为我们没有付电费,公司断了我们的电。

Theyve cut off the water/our water supply temporarily because they arerepairing one of the main pipes

他们暂时断了我们的水源,因为在修其中的一条主要的水管。

We were cut off in the middle of ourtelephoneconversation

我们(电)话还没完,就被掐断了。(这可能是偶然的事,也可能是电话接线员故意的行为。)

cut someone off 阻挡某人使其不能逃到安全地带(常用于指潮水围困,特别是用被动态时):

We were cut off by the tide and had to be rescued by boat

我们被潮水困住了,只好由小船搭救出来。

be cut offintr)被隔绝在不方便的地方(主语常是某一地方或住在某一地方的人):

You will be completely cut off if you go to live in that village becausethere is a bus only once a week

你要是去住在那个村里,就会与世隔绝了,因为那里每周只有一班公共汽车。

cut outtr

a)从布、纸等上弄下所需形状:

When I am making a dress I mark the cloth with chalk and then cut itout.(cut out the dress/cut the dress out

我缝衣服时先用白粉在布上画出样子,然后再剪下。

Young people often cut out photographs of their favourite pop stars andstick them to the walls

年轻人常把最喜欢的流行歌手的相片剪下来贴在墙上。

b)略去,排除,不再继续:

If you want to get thin you must cut out sugar.(cut it out

你要是想瘦点,就得不吃糖。

be cut out fortr)特别适合于……(用于指人,又常用于否定句中):

His father got him a job in a bank but it soon became clear that he wasnot cut out for that kind of work

他爸爸给他在银行里找了一个工作,但是不久就可以清楚地看出来,他不适合干那种工作。

cut uptr 切、割、剪成碎片:

They cut down the tree and cut it up for firewood.(cut the tree up/cut up the tree

他们把树砍倒并劈碎当柴火了。

die

die awayintr)(声音)逐渐微弱直到听不到:

They waited till the sound of the guards footsteps died away

他们一直等到警卫的脚步声消逝了。

die downintr)逐渐平静下来,直至平息(常指骚乱、火、心情的一阵波动等):

When the excitement had died down the shopkeepers took down theirshutters and reopened their shops

波动平息后,店主们取下了窗板,重新开店营业。

die outintr)绝灭,成为过去(常指风俗、种族、动物品种等):

Elephants would die out if men could shoot as many as they wished

如果人们爱猎杀多少大象就可以猎杀多少,大象就会灭种了。

do

do away withtr)废除:

The government should do away with the regulations restricting drinkinghours

政府应该废除限制卖酒的时间的规章。

do uptr)重新装饰:

When I do this room up Ill paint the walls cream.(do up this room/doit up

我重新装修房间时,要把墙漆成奶油色。

do withouttr)不要……而凑合过,免去……也可以:

We had to do without petrol during the fuel crisis

在燃料危机期间,我们不得不过没有汽油的日子。

有时宾语可以意会,不说出来:

If there isnt any milk well have to do withoutit).

如果没有牛奶,我们只好将就了。

draw

draw backintr)撤退,(因惊惧而)向后闪:

Its too late to draw back nowthe plans are all made

现在再后退也太晚了;计划都订好了。

draw uptr)草拟,写出(计划或协议书):

My solicitor drew up the lease and we both signed it.(drew it up

我的律师拟好了租约,我们两个人都签了名。

draw upintr)停下(指车辆等):

The car drew up at the kerb and the driver got out

车在马路边停下,开车人下了车。

drop

drop inintr)未经通知而造访并停留较短的时间:

He dropped in for a few minutes to ask if he could borrow your powerdrill

他不告而来,坐了几分钟,问是否能借用你的电钻。(比call in更口语化些。)

drop outintr)退出(某计划或行动):

We planned to hire a coach for the excursion but now so many peoplehave dropped out that it will not be needed

我们原计划租一辆大客车去郊游,但是现在已有这么多人退出,车就不需要了。

enter

enter fortr)报名参加(竞赛、考试等):

Twelve thousand competitors have entered for the next LondonMarathon

已有12000人报名参加下一次伦敦马拉松比赛。

fade

fade awayintr 消失,逐渐减弱(常指声音):

The band moved on and the music faded away

乐队继续行进,乐声逐渐听不见了。

fall

fall backintr)后退,撤退(指有意识的行动,与fall behind不同,后者是不由自主的):

As the enemy advanced we fell back

敌人向前推进,我们就后退了。

fall back ontr 退而求其次地使用某物:

We had to fall back on dried milk as fresh milk wasnt available

因为找不到鲜奶,我们不得已使用了奶粉。

He fell back on the old argument that if you educate women they wontbe such good wives and mothers

他重弹老调,说如果给妇女受教育的机会,她们就不会是这样的贤妻良母了。

fall behindintr)(因不能赶上别人而)落后,不能按协议的时间分期支付:

At the beginning the whole party kept together but by the end of the daythose who were less fit had fallen behind

起初全体人员都在一起,但到了晚间身体不够强壮的人就落后了。

He fell behind with his rent and the landlord began to become impatient

他不能按期交房租,房东不耐烦了。

fall in with someones plans 接受别人的计划并同意与之合作:

Wed better fall in with his suggestion for the sake of peace

为了息事宁人,我们还是接受他的建议为好。

fall inintrof troops etc.列队,整队(指军队等)

fall offintr)(数目、观众等)减少,下降:

Orders have been falling off latelywe need a new advertising campaign

近来订货量下降了;我们需要再搞一次广告宣传运动。

If the price of seats goes up much more theatre attendances will begin tofall off

如果票价大幅度上扬,观众人数就会下降了。

fall ontr 凶猛地袭击,扑上来(受害者没有自卫的机会,因为袭击者太有力;有时也用于描述饥饿的人急于吃食物):

The mob fell on the killers and clubbed them to death

乱民凶猛地攻击杀人者,把他们乱棍打死了。

The starving men fell on the food

饥饿的人们狼吞虎咽地吃了起来。

fall outintr)争吵:

When thieves fall out honest men get their own

窃贼争吵,好人受益。(格言;意指失主能得回他们的财产)

fall outintrof troops etc.解散(队伍):

The troops fell in and were inspectedAfter the parade they fell out and went back to their barracks

队伍列队并接受了检阅。游行完毕后他们解散回营房了。

fall throughintr)(计划)未能实现,化为泡影:

My plans to go to Greece fell through because the journey turned out to bemuch more expensive than I had expected

我上希腊去的计划未能实现,因为我发现旅行远比我预期的要昂贵。

feed

be fed upintr),be fed up withtr)完全厌倦,十分腻烦(俚语):

Im fed up with this wet weather

我对这潮呼呼的天气腻烦极了。

Im fed up with waitingIm going home

我等得不耐烦了;我要回家了。

feel

feel up totr 感到有体力(能做某事):

I dont feel up to tidying the kitchen nowIll do it in the morning

我现在没劲儿打扫厨房。我早上干吧。

I dont feel up to it

我觉得没有力气做这件事。

fill

fill in/up  forms etc.填写表格:

I had to fill in three forms to get my new passport.(fill three forms in/fill them in

为了领新护照,我不得不填写三张表格。

find

find outtr)通过有意识的努力而弄清或发现:

In the end I found out what was wrong with my hifi

我终于搞清楚我的高保真音响出了什么毛病。

The dog found out the way to open the door.(found it out

那狗搞清楚怎么开门了。

find someone out 发现某人在干坏事(这常是一种意外的发现,因为某人一直是受信任的):

After robbing the till for months the cashier was found out

那出纳员从钱柜里偷钱偷了好几个月后才被发现。

fix

fix uptr)安排:

The club has already fixed up several matches for next season.(fixed sev-eral matches up/fixed them up

俱乐部已经为下一个赛季安排了几场比赛。

get

get aboutintr 流转,运动或行动:

The news got about that he had won the first prize in the state lottery andeverybody began asking him for money

他买国家奖券得了头奖的消息不胫而走,大家都开始向他要钱。

He is a semi-invalid now and cant get about as well as he used to

他现在是个半残废了,不能像过去那样自在地行动。

get awayintr 逃掉,脱身:

Dont ask him how he is because if he starts talking about his healthyoull never get away from him

不要去问他身体好不好,因为他要是一谈起他的身体状况,你就会脱身乏术的。

I had a lot to do in the office and didnt get away till eight

我在办公室里事很多,到8点钟才得以脱身。

get away withtr)做非法或错误的事后逃脱了惩罚,不被人抓住或发觉:

He began forging cheques and at first he got away with it but in the endhe was caught and sent to prison

他开始干伪造支票的事,起初他蒙混过去了,但最终被抓住并送进了监狱。

get backtr 收回:

If you lend him a book hell lend it to someone else and youll never getit back.(get back your book/get your book back

如果你借给他一本书,他就会转借给别人,你就再也收不回来了。

get backintr)回到家里:

We spent the whole day in the hills and didnt get back till dark

我们在山里呆了一整天,直到天黑才回到家。

get offintr)被认为无罪而释放或未受到惩处(试与getaway with it比较,后者意指犯罪者根本没有被抓到):

He was tried for theft but got off because there wasnt sufficient evidenceagainst him

他因某宗盗窃案而受审,但因证据不足而被无罪释放了。

The boy had to appear before a magistrate but he got off as it was his firstoffence

那男孩不得不出庭受审,但因为是初犯而未受惩罚。

get onintr),get on withtr)有下面两种意义:

a)取得进展,得到成功:

How is he getting on at school

他在学校学习如何?

He is getting on very well with his English

他英文学得很好。

b)友好地同别人一起生活、工作等:

He is a pleasant friendly man who gets on well with nearly everybody

他是一个愉悦、友善、几乎跟任何人都能相处得很好的人。

How are you and Mr Pitt getting on

你和皮特先生相处得好吗?get outintr 脱身离开(一个封闭的地方):

Dont worry about the snakeIts in a boxIt cant get out

别担心这条蛇。它在盒子里,跑不出来。

News of the Budget got out before it was officially announced

有关预算的消息,在正式宣布以前就走漏了。

Im so busy that I dont very often get out

我太忙了,不大出门。

注意:命令句Get out是滚出去的意思,是很无礼的。只有在作下车的意思讲时才不是这样。

get out oftr)使自己摆脱某种义务或习惯:

I said that Id help himNow I dont want to but I cant get out of it

我说过我要帮助他。现在我不想帮助他了,可是无法脱手。(不顾及这一允诺)

He says that he smokes too much but he cant get out of the habit

他说他烟吸得太多了,但是他去不掉这习惯。

Some people live abroad to get out of paying heavy taxes

有些人居住在国外,为的是摆脱沉重的捐税负担。

get overtr 恢复(原来生病、忧郁或精神上害怕等):

He is just getting over a bad heart attack

他曾心脏病大发,正在康复。

I cant get over her leaving her husband like that

她那样离开她的丈夫,我真想不通。(我还没有从惊讶中缓过劲来;我感到震惊不已。)

He used to be afraid of heights but he has got over that now.他过去有恐高症,现在已经没了。

get it over(常以it为宾语,一般指某种不愉快的事)处理完某事并不再为它多忙:

If you have to go to the dentist why not go at once and get it over

你要是必须去看牙医,为什么不马上就去,一了百了呢?

(注意勿将其与get over it混淆。二者意思完全不同。)

get round a person 好言哄劝某人以使他让你做你要想做的事:

Girls can usually get round their fathers

女孩子们总能哄得爸爸们答应她们的要求。

get round a difficulty/regulation 找到解决困难或回避规章的方法:

If we charge people for admission we will have to pay entertainment taxon our receiptsbut we can get round this regulation by saying that weare charging not for admission but for refreshmentsMoney paid for refreshments is not taxed

我们如果向人们收门票钱,就得为进款交纳娱乐税;但我们可以避开这条规定,就是把收门票钱说成是收饮料点心钱。饮料点心钱是不收税的。

get throughtr/intr 干完一项工作,胜利地完成一件事:

He got through his exam all right

他成功地通过了考试。

get throughintr 打通(电话):

I am trying to call London but I cant get throughI think all the linesare engaged

我正在往伦敦打电话,可是打不通;我想所有的电话线路都占线了。

get uptr 组织,安排(常指一项业余文娱活动或慈善事业):

They got up a concert in aid of cancer research.(got it up

他们组织了一次为抗癌研究筹款的音乐会。

get upintr 起床,站起身来,登上:

I get up at seven oclock every morning

我每天早上7点钟起床。

(关于get用于指上/下交通工具,参见第93D。)

give

give something away 把东西给人(不一定要说出是谁):

Ill give this old coat away.(give away this old coat away/give it away

我要把这件旧外衣给人。

give someone away(宾语位于away之前)出卖或暴露某人:

He said that he was not an American but his accent gave him away

他说他不是美国人,可是他的口音让人听出他是美国人了。

give backtr)(将某物)归还给原主:

I must call at the library to give back this book.(to give this book back/to give it back

我得去图书馆把这本书还了。

give inintr 屈服,退让,不再拒绝听从:

At first he wouldnt let her drive the car but she was so persuasive thateventually he gave in

起初他不肯让她开车,可是她这么能说,最终他还是答应了。

give outtr

a 口头宣称:

They gave out the names of the winners.(gave the names out/gave themout

他们宣布了获胜者的名字。

b)分发,分给:

The teacher gave out the books.(gave one/some to each pupil

教师分发了书。

give outintr)耗竭,用光(指供应品等):

The champagne gave out long before the end of the reception

在招待会结束前很久,香槟酒就都喝完了。

His patience gave out and he slapped the child hard

他再也忍耐不下去了,用力打了那孩子一巴掌。

give uptr/intr 放弃努力,停止做某事的试图:

I tried to climb the wall but after I had failed three times I gave up.(gaveup the attempt/gave the attempt up/gave it up

我试图爬上那堵墙,但失败三次之后我放弃了。

A really determined person never gives up/never gives up trying.一个真正有决心的人绝不会放弃试一次的机会。

give uptr 放弃某种习惯、运动、学习、职业等:

Have you given up drinking whisky before breakfast

你已经不在早餐之前喝威士忌了?

He gave up cigarettes.(gave them up

他不吸烟了。

He tried to learn Greek but soon got tired of it and gave it up

他曾想学希腊语,但不久就感到厌倦而放弃了。

give oneself up(宾语在up之前) 投降,自首,不再抗拒:

He gave himself up to despair

他完全沉湎于绝望中。

He was cold and hungry after a week on the run so he gave himself up tothe police

他上路潜逃一个星期后饥寒交迫,只得向警方自首了。

go

go aheadintr)(继续)工作、前进,先走:

While she was away he went ahead with the work and got a lot done

她不在的时候,他继续干活,干了不少工作。

You go ahead and Ill followIm not quite ready

你先走一步,我随后就来;我还没完全准备好。

go awayintr 离开,走开,别在这儿:

Are you going away for your holiday

NoIm staying at home

—你假期出去吗?

—不,我呆在家里。

Please go awayI cant work unless I am alone

请你走开;有人在旁边我无法工作。

go backintr 回去,后退,撤退:

Im never going back to that hotelIt is most uncomfortable

我再也不回那家旅馆了。那儿太不舒服了。

go back ontr 收回或不履行(诺言):

He went back on his promise to tell nobody about this

他答应这件事对谁也不讲,可是他食言了。

go downintr

a 得到赞同并被接受(常指一个主意、想法):

I suggested that she should look for a job but this suggestion did not godown at all well

我建议她去找个工作,可是这个主意她根本听不进。

b)减少,减弱(指风、浪、重量、价格等):

During her illness her weight went down from 50 kilos to 40

在病中她体重由50公斤下降到40公斤。

The wind went down and the sea became quite calm

风力减弱,海浪平息了。

go fortr 进攻,袭击:

The cat went for the dog and chased him out of the hall

那猫向狗发起进攻,把它赶出了门厅。

go in fortr)对……特别感兴趣,练习做某事或使用某物,参加(某项比赛等):

This restaurant goes in for vegetarian dishes

这家饭馆供应素菜。

She plays a lot of golf and goes in for all the competitions

她常打高尔夫球,参加所有的赛事。

go intotr 深入调查,研究,侦查:

We shall have to go into this very carefully,’said the detective

“我们得非常仔细地对此进行侦查,”侦探说。

go offintr

a 爆炸(指军火或焰火),开火(指枪炮,尤指偶然走火):

As he was cleaning his gun it went off and killed him

他擦枪时,枪走火了,把他打死了。

b)获得成功(指一项社会或社交活动):

The party went off very well

晚会开得很成功。(人人都玩得很高兴。)

c)开始一次旅行,上路,离开:

He went off in a great hurry

他非常匆忙地走了。

go onintr)继续赶路:

Go on till you come to the orossroads

一直走到十字路口的地方。

go onintr),go on withtr),go on+动名词 继续做某事:

Please go on playingI like it

请继续演奏下去;我喜欢这曲调。

Go on with the treatmentIt is doing you good

你要继续进行这种疗法。它对你是有效的。

go on+动词不定式 接着干(另一件事):

He began by describing the route and went on to tell us what the tripwould probably cost

他开始是描述这条路线,后来又告诉我们这次旅行可能要花多少钱。

go outintr

a 出家门到外面去,外出:

She is always indoorsshe doesnt go out enough

她老是窝在家里;她外出得不够。

b 参加社会交活动,出去进行文娱活动等:

She is very pretty and goes out a lot

她长得很漂亮,常常到外头玩。

c 消逝,不再流行(指时装服饰):

Crinolines went out about the middle of the last century

有衬架支撑的女裙在上世纪中叶已不流行了。

d 熄灭(指灯、火等):

The light went out and we were left in the dark

灯光灭了,剩下我们摸黑呆着。

go overtr 仔细地检查,研究学习,重新诵记:

He went over the plans again and discovered two very serious mistakes

他又把计划过了一遍,发现了两个非常严重的错误。

go roundintr

a 足够供(一定数目的人)用:

Will there be enough wine to go round

葡萄酒够大家喝的吗?

b)到(某人)家去,过去:

I said that Id go round and see her during the weekend

我说过我要在周末过去看看她。(到她家里去)

go throughtr)仔细检查(常指多种东西;与look through意思相近,但具有更彻底的意思):

There is a mistake somewherewell have to go through the accounts andsee where it is

不知哪儿有个错误;我们得再把帐目彻底过一下,看错在哪儿。

The police went through their files to see if they could find any fingerprints to match those that they had found on the handle of the weapon

警方仔细检查了他们的档案,看是否能找到同在凶器柄上发现的指纹相符的指纹。

go throughtr)承受,受苦,受罪:

No one knows what I went through while I was waiting for the verdict

没有人能知道我在静候判决时所承受的痛苦。

go through withtr)完成,使进行至终结(尤指经历某种反对或困难):

He went through with his plan although all his friends advised him toabandon it

尽管他的朋友们都建议他放弃,他还是把计划进行到底。

go upintr

a 上升(指物价):

The price of strawberries went up towards the end of the season

草莓将要下市时,价格上涨了。

b)起火(并被焚毁),爆炸(指整个的建筑物、船只等):

When the fire reached the cargo of chemicals the whole ship went up

火焰延伸到运载的化学品时,全船都爆炸了。

Someone dropped a cigarette end into a can of petrol and the whole garagewent up in flames

有人把烟头扔在一罐汽油里了,整个车库都陷于火海。

go withouttr)不要某物而将就着过日子(但只指物;gowithout a person只有字面的意义,即意指“不等某人来到就动身离去”)

grow

grow out oftr)长大了一些后不再继续保持幼时的(坏)习惯:

He used to tell a lot of lies as a young boy but he grew out of that lateron

他还是个小男孩时,常常说谎,可是后来大了就不那样了。

grow upintr 成为成年人,长大成人:

Im going to be a pop star when I grow up,’said the boy

“我长大了要当流行歌星,”那男孩子说。

hand

hand downtr)授予或传下去(指传统/信息/所有物等):

This legend has been handed down from father to son

这一传说代代相传。

hand intr)上交,交出(给什么人常不必提及,因为听话人已经知道了):

I handed in my resignation

我把辞职书交上去了。

Someone handed this parcel in yesterday.(handed it in

昨天有人把这小包交来了。

hand outtr)分发:

He was standing at the door of the theatre handing out leaflets.(handingleaflets out/handing them out

他站在剧院门口,分发小册子。

hand overtr/intr)将权力或职责交给某人,移交:

The outgoing Minister handed over his department to his successor.(handed his department over/handed it over

即将离任的部长把他的部门移交给了后任。

hand roundtr)给在场的每一个人,给在场的大家轮流看:

The hostess handed round coffee and cakes.(handed them round).

女主人给大家依次递来咖啡和点心。

hang

hang about/aroundtr/intr)(在附近)逗留不去:

He hung about/around the entrance all dayhoping for a chance to speakto the director

他整天等在入口,巴望着有机会同导演/主任谈一下。

hang backintr)不愿采取行动,退缩:

Everyone approved of the scheme but when we asked for volunteers theyall hung back

人人都赞同这个计划,但是我们征求志愿者时,他们都退缩了。

hang on totr)抓住不放,不肯交出,不放手(俗语化的用法):

Id hang on to that old coat if I were youIt might be useful

如果我是你,我就不放手那件旧外衣。它可能还用得着。

hold

hold offintr)保持在一段距离之外,不来到(指雨):

The rain fortunately held off till after the school sports day

幸亏雨直到学校运动会开过了才下。

hold onintr 等待(特指打电话时):

YesMr Pitt is inIf you hold on for a moment Ill get him for you

对,皮特先生在。请您等一会儿,我给您找他听电话。

hold on/outintr)(不顾艰苦或危险而)坚持,坚持忍受下去:

The survivors on the rock signalled that they were short of water butcould hold out for another day

岩石上的幸存者发信号说他们缺水了,但还能坚持一天。

The strikers held out for six weeks before agreeing to arbitration

罢工工人坚持了六周,才同意接受仲裁。

hold uptr

a 以威胁或暴力使人停止向前走(时常由于想抢劫):

The terrorists held up the train and kept the passengers as hostages

恐怖分子强行制止火车前进,并把乘客劫为人质。

Masked men held up the cashier and robbed the bank.(held him up

有几个蒙面人用武器迫使出纳员就范,把银行给抢了。

b)使停止,使延迟(常用于被动语态):

The bus was held up because a tree had fallen across the road

因为有一棵大树横倒在路上,公共汽车停下了。

join

join upintr)参军,应征从军:

When war was declared he joined up at once

一宣战,他马上参军。

jump

jump attr)热情地接受(一种建议或一次机遇):

He was offered a place in the Himalayan expedition and jumped at thechance

人家向他提议让他参加喜马拉雅山考察队,他求之不得地接受了。

keep

keep somebody back(宾语在back前面)阻挡,拦阻,制止其前进:

Frequent illnesses kept him back

经常生病使他进展迟缓。

keep downtr)压抑,控制:

What is the best way to keep down rats?(keep them down

控制鼠患的最佳方法是什么?

Try to remember to turn off the light when you leave the roomI am trying to keep down expenses.(keep expenses down

你离开时,要记得熄灯。我在努力控制支出。

keep offtr/intr)避免在……上践踏,避免来到近旁:

Keep off the grass.’

“禁止践踏草地!”(公园里的布告)

keep on 继续,不停歇:

I wanted to explain but he kept on talking and didnt give me a chance tosay anything

我本想解释一下,可是他不住嘴地说,不给我说话的机会。

keep outtr)阻止进入,挡住:

My shoes are very old and dont keep out the water.(keep the water out/ keep it out

我的鞋很旧,漏水进去了。

keep outintr)不许进来,留在外面:

PrivateKeep out.’

“私人产业。不许进入。”(门上的告白)

keep uptr)继续保持(努力):

He began walking at four miles an hour but he couldnt keep up thatspeed and soon began to walk more slowly.(couldnt keep it up

他开始以每小时四英里的速度走路,但是无法维持那个速度,不久之后就放慢了脚步。

It is difficult to keep up a conversation with someone who only saysYesandNo’.

与光说“对”和“不对”的人很难把谈话继续下去。

keep upintr),keep up withtr)与某人齐头并进,和某人同速前进:

A runner cant keep up with a cyclist

跑步的跟不上骑车的。

The work that the class is doing is too difficult for meI wont be able tokeep upwith them).

班上学的东西对我讲是太难了。我跟不上(他们)。

It is impossible to keep up with the news unless you read the newspapers

你要是不读报,就跟不上时事。

knock

knock offtr/intr)(一天的活干完之后)歇了,收工,下班(俗语):

English workmen usually knock off at 5.30 or6.00 pm

英国工人一般在下午5点半或6点下班。

We knock off work in time for tea

我们收工后,正好能赶上喝下午茶。

knock outtr)重击使之晕倒在地:

In the finals of the boxing championship he knocked out his opponentwho was carried out of the ring.(knocked his opponent out/knocked himout

在拳击锦标赛决赛中,他把对手击昏在地,后者被人抬出了拳击台。

lay

lay intr)为自己准备足够的货品等以使其维持一段时间,储备(食物):

She expected a shortage of dried fruit so she laid in a large supply

她预期果脯会有短缺,所以囤积了一大批。

lay outtr)为花园、建筑等安排平面设计:

Le Notre laid out the gardens at Versailles.(laid the gardens out/laidthem out

凡尔赛宫的园林是勒·诺特尔设计的。

lay uptr)小心地存储以备将来用(指船只等):

Before he went to Brazil for a yearhe laid up his caras he didnt wantto sell it.(laid it up

他要到巴西去一年,在此以前他把车子储存起来了,因为他不想把车卖掉。

be laid upof a person)因病卧床不起:

She was laid up for weeks with a slipped disk

她因腰椎间盘突出,卧床数周之久。

lead

lead up totr)为……做好准备,引出(比喻的用法):

He wanted to borrow my binocularsbut he didnt say so at onceHe ledup to it by talking about birdwatching

他想借我的望远镜,可又不直接说。他借着谈起观察鸟类的话题引出这件事。

leave

leave off(常为intr)停止(做某件事):

He was playing his trumpet but I told him to leave off because the neighbours were complaining about the noise

他在吹喇叭,可是我告诉他别吹了,因为邻居们都在抱怨太闹了。

leave outtr)省略,删去:

Well sing our school song leaving out the last ten verses

我们唱校歌要省略最后十节。

They gave each competitor a numberbut they left out No13 as no onewanted to have it.(left No13 out/left it out

他们给每个参赛者一个号码;可是他们把13号隔过去了,因为没有人要这个号码。

let

let downtr)放下来:

When she lets her hair down it reaches her waist.(lets down her hair/lets it down

她把头发放下来时,头发长抵腰际。

You can let a coat downlengthen itby using the hem

你可以利用下摆把一件外衣放长。

let someone down(宾语在down之前)行动不像某人所期待的,未能执行某一协议,辜负某人:

I promised him that you would do the workWhy did you let me downby doing so little

我答应他说你会做这工作的。你为什么干得这么少而让我失望呢?

He said hed come to help mebut he let me downHe never turned up.他本来说过要来帮我;可是他把我涮了。他根本就没有来。

let intr)允许进入,放进来:

They let in the ticket-holders.(let the ticketholders in/let them in

他们把持票人放进去了。

If you mention my name to the door-keeper he will let you in

你要是对看门人提我的名字,他会放你进去的。

let someone off(宾语在off之前)不予惩罚:

I thought that the magistrate was going to fine me but he let me off

我本以为法官会罚我,可是他放了我一马。

let outtr

a)放宽(指衣服):

That boy is getting fatterYoull have to let out his clothes.(let hisclothes out/let them out

那男孩子长胖了。你得把他的衣服放宽一些。

b)允许走开,放出:

He opened the door and let out the dog.(let the dog out/let it out

他开门把狗放出去了。

live

live down a bad reputation小心做人以使人忘记自己的不良声誉:

He has never quite been able to live down a reputation for drinking toomuch which he got when he was a young man.(live it down

他年轻时有酗酒的恶名,至今未能完全挽回声誉。

live inintr)住在工作的地方(主要用于仆人):

AdvertisementCook wanted.£140 a weekLive in

广告:招聘厨师。周薪140镑。供住宿。

live ontr)以……为主食:

It is said that for a certain period of his life Byron lived on vinegar andpotatoes in order to keep thin

据说拜仑曾有一段时期为了不发胖靠吃马铃薯和酸醋过日子。

live up tptr)维持某种道德、经济或行为标准:

He had high ideals and tried to live up to them

他有崇高的理想,并力求身体力行。(他试图按照自己的理想而行动。)

lock

lock up a housetr/intr;常为intr)把房子所有的门都锁上:

People usually lock up before they go to bed at night

人们夜晚就寝前一般都锁好门窗。

lock up a person or thing 锁在……之内:

She locked up the papers in her desk.(locked the papers up/locked themup

她把文件锁在书桌抽屉里了。

look

look aftertr)照料:

Will you look after my parrot when I am away

我不在的时候,你能否替我照看一下我的鹦鹉?

look aheadintr)考虑未来以便为之做准备:

Its time you looked ahead and made plans for your retirement

是你为以后想一想并对退休后的生活做出安排的时候了。

look attr)看,望:

He looked at the clock and said,‘It is midnight.’

他看了看钟,说:“午夜了。”

look backintr),look back ontr)回顾:

Looking backI dont suppose we are any worse now than people were ahundred years ago

看一看过去,我不认为我们比100年前的人更坏。

Perhaps some day it will be pleasant to look back on these things

可能将来有一天我们回顾这些事时会感到愉快的。

look back/roundintr)向背后看(字面意义):

Dont look round now but the woman behind us is wearing the most extraordinary clothes

现在别回头看,虽然我们后面那个妇女穿的衣服特别怪。

look down ontr)轻视,看不起:

Small boys often look down on little girls and refuse to play with them

小男孩常常看不起小女孩并拒绝同她们一起玩。

She thinks her neighbours look down on her a bit because shes neverbeen abroad

她认为她的邻居们因她从来没有出过国而有点瞧不起她。

look fortr)搜寻,探索,找:

I have lost my watch will you help me to look for it

我把表丢了。你能不能帮我找一下?

look forward totr)盼望,期待(常带一个动名词):

I am looking forward to her arrival/to seeing her

我在期待着她的到来/看到她。

look inintr)短暂地拜访某人(常不预先告诉对方,相当于call in):

Ill look in this evening to see how she is

我今晚去探望她一下,看她身体如何。

look intotr)调查:

There is a mystery about his death and the police are looking into it

他死得有点蹊跷,警方正在进行调查。

look onastr)考虑为,认为,看成:

Most people look on a television set as an essential piece of furniture

多数人都把电视机看成是必不可少的家具。

These children seem to look on their teachers as their enemies

这些孩子好像把老师视为敌人。

look onintr)旁观:

Two men were fightingThe rest were looking on

两个男人在打架。其余的人在袖手旁观。

look ontr), look out ontr)(用于指房屋或窗户)面向,朝着……方向:

His house looksouton to the sea

他的房子面临大海。

look outintr)保持警惕,提防:

Look outTheres a lorry coming!’

(对要过马路的人)“留神!有辆卡车开过来了!”

look out fortr)警惕地看着以等待某物出现(常是相当明显的事物):

I am going to the party too,so look out for me

我也要去参加聚会,你留意着我好了。

look overtr)以批评的眼光看,重新阅读,迅速核对改正(同go over相似,但不如后者彻底):

look over what youve written before handing it to the examiner

先把你写的看一遍,再交给考官。

Im going to look over a house that Im thinking of buying

我打算去看一下我想买的一幢房子。

look throughtr)察看若干东西,常为了挑选其中几个,翻阅报纸或书籍以寻找自己需要的内容:

Look through your old clothes and see if you have anything to give away

把你的旧衣服翻一下,看有没有可以送掉的。

Id like you to look through these photographs and try to pick out theman you saw

我希望你把这些相片翻看一下,试着从中找出你看见的那个人。

He looked through the books and decided that he wouldnt like them

他把书翻阅了一下,认定他不会喜欢它们的。

look through someone 对某人看而又仿佛看不见的样子(作为一种故意的无礼表示):

She has to be polite to me in the office but when we meet outside she always looks through me

她在办公室里不得不对我有礼貌,可是在外面遇到我的时候总是对我视而不见。

look up an address/a name/word/train/telehone number etc

在地址本/词典/时间表/电话簿等中查找:

If you dont know the meaning of the word look it up.(look up the word/look the word up

你要是不知道这个词的意思,就查一下。

I must look up the time of your train

我得查一下你坐的火车的时刻。

look somebody up 拜访(被访者常是住得较远、不常见到的,

因此与look in不同,后者暗示被访者住得很近):

Any time you come to London do look me up

你无论什么时候到伦敦来,一定要来看我。

I havent seen Tom for agesI must find out where he lives and look himup.(look Tome up/look up Tom

我很久没见到汤姆了。我得探问一下他住在哪里,去看他一下。

look upintr 有进步,变得更好(主语常是things情况/business市面/world affairs世界局势/the weather天气等一种不太确指的事):

Business has been very bad lately but things are beginning to look upnow

近期市面有一阵子很不兴旺,可是情况在开始好转。

look someone up and down 轻蔑地将某人从头打量到脚:

The policeman looked the drunk man up and down very deliberately before replying to his question

警察非常有意地从头到脚打量了那醉汉,这才回答他的问题。

look up totr 尊敬,敬仰:

School boys usually look up to great athletes

男学生常很崇拜了不起的体育明星。

make

make fortr)向……走去:

The escaped prisoner was making for the coast

越狱犯正向海岸逃去。

make offintr 逃跑(指贼等):

The boys made off when they saw the policemen

男孩子们一看见警察,就拔腿跑了。

make outtr

a)弄清意义,清楚地理解、看见、听见等:

I cant make out the dresshe has written it so badly.(make the ad-dress out/make it out

我看不清地址,他写得太潦草了。

Can you hear what the man with the loud-hailer is sayingI cant makeit out at all

你听得出那个拿着电喇叭的人在说什么吗?我一点也听不清楚。

I cant make out why he isnt here yet

我搞不明白他为什么还没有到这儿来。

b)说(可能是瞎说,也可能是夸大其辞):

He made out that he was a student looking for a jobWe later learnt thatthis wasnt true at all

他说他是个在找工作的大学生。后来我们获悉这根本不是事实。

The English climate isnt so bad as some people like to make out

英国的天气不像某些人喜欢说的那么糟。

c)开支票:

CustomerWho shall I make it out to

顾客:我支票抬头怎么写?

ShopkeeperMake it out to Jones and Company

店主:就写付给琼斯公司好了。

make up ones mind 下定决心,做出决定,做出决断:

In the end he made up his mind to go by train

最后他决定坐火车去。

make up a quarrel/make it up 终止争吵,言归于好:

Isnt it time you and Ann made up your quarrel?(made it up

不是到了你和安该言归于好的时候了吗?

make up a story/excuse/explanation 捏造,编出一个故事/借口/解释:

I dont believe your story at allI think you are just making it up

我根本不信你说的事。我认为你不过是在编造。

make uptr/intr 化妆,化装:

Most women make up/make up their faces.(make their faces up/makethem up

妇女大多数都化妆。

Actors have to be made up before they appear on stage

演员们在出场前必需有人给他们化装。

make uptr 调制,配药,制造,由……组成:

Take this prescription to the chemistsThey will make it up for youthere.(make up the prescription/make the prescription up

把这药方拿到药房。他们会给你配药的。

Noticein tailors window):Customersown materials made up

(裁缝店橱窗内的)告示:为顾客来料加工。

The audience was made up of very young children

观众都是很小的孩子们。

make up fortr 为……补偿(常以it为宾语):

Youll have to work very hard today to make up for the time you wastedyesterday/to make up for being late yesterday

为了补偿昨天你们浪费的时间/为了补偿昨天你们迟到一事,今天你们得非常努力地干活。

We arent allowed to drink when we are in training but we intend tomake up for it after the race is over

我们在训练期间不许喝酒,但是我们准备一旦比赛结束就将其补上。

(到那时要多喝些)

miss

miss outtr 省略(参见leave out;它虽与leave out同义,但不如后者常用)

mix

mix uptr 混淆,弄乱:

He mixed up the addresses so that no one got the right letters.(mixedthem up

他把地址都弄乱了,收信人收到的信件都错了。

be/get mixed up with 涉入,与……有牵连(常指同某不光彩的人或事有牵连):

I dont want to get mixed up with any illegal organization

我不想同什么不合法的组织牵连在一起。

move

move inintr 搬家到……,搬进,迁入

move on/upintr 升迁,升级:

Normally in schools pupils move up every year

在学校里学生正常情况下每年都升级。

move outintr 搬出,迁出:

I have found a new flatThe present tenant is moving out this weekendand I am moving in on Wednesday

我找到新的套房了。目前的住户本周末搬出去,我下星期三搬进去。

order

order somebody about(宾语位于about前面)给某人下许多命令(而不管其是否方便或愿意),支使:

He is a retired admiral and still has the habit of ordering people about

他是个退休了的海军将军,还留着随意支使人的习惯。

pay

pay backtr),pay someone backtr/intr 还给,付还:

I must pay back the money that I borrowed.(pay the money back/pay itback

我必须还清借的钱。

I must pay back Mr Pitt.(pay Mr Pitt back/pay him back

我必须还皮特先生的钱。

I must pay Mr Pitt back the money he lent me.(pay him back the mon-ey/pay it back to him

我必须还皮特先生借给我的钱。

pay someone back/out 算账,复仇,报复:

Ill pay you back for this

这件事我要跟你算账。(报复你给我造成的损失。)

pay upintr)付清所欠的钱(常暗示付款者并不乐意):

Unless you pay up I shall tell my solicitor to write to you

除非你付清欠款,否则我要叫我的律师给你写信。

pick

pick outtr 选择,将……同其他的区别开来:

Here are six ringsPick out the one you like best.(pick it out)这里有六枚戒指。选出你最喜欢的一枚。

In an identity parade the witness has to try to pick out the criminal from

a group of about eight men.(pick the criminal out/pick him out

在(警察局)辨认罪犯时,证人得试着从约八个人的一组中挑出罪犯来。

I know that you are in this photograph but I cant pick you out

我知道这张照片里有你,可是我认不出是哪一个。

pick uptr

a)扶起,抱起,拾起某人或物(常是从地上或从椅上或桌上):

He picked up the child and carried him into the house.(picked the childup

他抱起孩子并把他抱进了屋里了。

She scatters toys all over the floor and I have to pick them up

她把玩具抛撒得到处都是,我得给拾起来。

b)(乘车)来接:

I wont have time to come to your house but I could pick you up at theend of your road

我会没有时间到你家来,但是我可以到你家马路尽头接你。

The coach stops at the principal hotels to pick up touristsbut only if theyarrange this in advance.(pick tourists up/pick them up

大客车到各主要的旅馆来接观光者,但条件是必须事先安排好。

The crew of the wrecked yacht were picked up by helicopter

失事的游艇上的船员们被直升机救起了。

c)接收到无线电讯号:

Their SOS was picked up by another shipwhich informed the lifeboatheadquarters

他们的呼救讯号被另一条船收到了,后者通知了救生艇总部。

d)以廉价购得,不费力地学会:

Sometimes you pick up wonderful bargains in these markets

在这些市场上你有时能买到很好的便宜货。

Children usually pick up foreign languages very quickly

儿童通常能很快地学会外语。

point

point outtr 指示,指给……看:

As we drove through the city the guide pointed out the most importantbuildings.(pointed the buildings out/pointed them out

我们乘车通过市区时,导游把最重要的建筑物指给我们看。

pull

pull downtr 拆毁(指建筑物):

Everywhere elegant old buildings are being pulled down and mediocremodern erections are being put up.(pull down houses/pull them down

到处都在拆毁美好的旧建筑,修建平庸的新建筑。

pull offtr 搞成功(宾语常用it):

Much to our surprise he pulled off the deal.(pulled it off

使我们很惊讶的是,他居然把这笔交易搞成功了。

pull throughtr/intr 病愈,使人病愈:

We thought she was going to die but her own will-power pulled herthrough.(tr

我们本以为她要死了,但是她自己的意志力帮助她活了过来。(及物动词)

He is very ill but hell pull through if we look after him carefully.(intr

他病得很厉害,但是如果我们仔细照料他,他会病愈的。(不及物动词)

pull upintr (车辆)停下:

A lay-by is a space at the side of a main roadwhere drivers can pull up ifthey want a rest

路边停车处是干道沿线供想休息的司机停车的地方。

put

put aside/bytr 保留以供将来使用(常指钱,而且前者常指为了某种目的而把钱存起来):

He puts aside 50 a month to pay for his summer holiday.(puts itaside

他每个月省下50镑存着,以备暑假用。

Dont spend all your salaryTry to put something by each month

别把薪水都花了。尽量每个月存下一点。

put awaytr 整齐地收好(如放在抽屉或柜橱里):

Put your toys awaychildrenits bedtime.(put away the toys/putthem away

孩子们,把玩具放好;该去睡了。

put something back 放回原处,放到该放的地方:

When youve finished with the book put it back on the shelf

你看完这本书后,把它放回书架上。

put back a clock/watch 把时针往回拨(有时是一种比喻,指恢复过去的习俗):

MotherYour father and I will arrange a marriage for youwhen the time comes

母亲:到了时候,你爸爸和我会给你安排婚事的。

DaughterYoure trying to put the clock backmotherParents dontarrange marriages these days!(put back the clock/put it back

女儿:妈妈,你是想恢复过去的那一套。眼下当父母的不再为儿女安排婚事了!

put downtr

a)放下(pick up的反义词):

He picked up the saucepan and put it down at once because the handlewas almost red-hot.(put the saucepan down/put it down

他拿起了锅,马上又把它放下了,因为锅柄差不多都烧红了。

b)镇压起义,平息一次运动:

Troops were used to put down the rebellionput the rebellion down/putit down

动用了军队镇压起义。

c)写下来:

Put down his phone number before you forget it.(put the number down/put it down

把他的电话号码写下来,别等忘了。

Customerto shop assistant):Ill take that onePlease put it down to me/to my account

顾客(对店员):我买那一个。请记在我的账上。

put something down totr 认为是由于……:

The children wouldnt answer himbut he wasnt annoyed as he put itdown to shyness

孩子们不肯回答,但是他不恼,因为他认为这是因为孩子们害羞。

She hasnt been well since she came to this countryI put it down to theclimate

自从来到这个国家以后她一直身体不好。我认为是由于气候的缘故。

put forward a suggestion/proposal etc.提出建议等:

The older members of the committee are inclined to veto any suggestions put forward by the younger ones.(put a suggestion forward/put it for-ward

委员会的老成员们趋向于否决年轻成员们提出的任何建议。

put forward/on clocks and watches 把钟表往前拨(put for-wardput back的反义词):

In March people in England put their clocks forwad/on an hourWhensummer time ends they put them back an hour

英国人在3月份把时针向前拨一小时。夏时制结束时他们又把时针拨回一小时。

put in a claim 提出权利要求:

He put in a claim for compensation because he had lost his luggage in the train crash

因为他在火车撞车事故中丢失了行李,他提出了赔偿损失的要求。

put in for a job/a post 求职:

They are looking for a lecturer in geographyWhy dont you put in forit

他们在征聘一位地理讲师。你为什么不去求职?

put off an action 推迟某种行动:

Some people put off making their wills till it is too late

有些人推迟立遗嘱的事,后来就来不及了。

Ill put off my visit to Scotland till the weather is warmer.(put my visitoff/put it off

我要把到苏格兰去访问的事推迟到天气转暖以后。

put a person off

a)告诉某人推迟来访:

I had invited some guests to dinner but I had to put them off because apower cut prevented me from cooking anything

我本来邀请一些客人来吃饭,但是不得不告诉他们先别来了,因为停电使我无法做菜。

b)拒绝或推阻某人:

I wanted to see the exhibition but the queue put me off

我本想去看展览会,但是排队的人太多,使我不想看了。

Many people who want to come to England are put off by the stories theyhear about English weather

许多想游览英国的人因为听说英国天气不好就不来了。

put on a light/gas or electric fire/radio 打开(电灯/煤气灶或电气灶/收音机):

Put on the light.(put the light on/put it on

打开灯。

put on a play 上演一出戏:

The students usually put on a play at the end of the year

学生们一般都在年终上演一出戏。

put on an expression 做出某种表情:

He put on an air of indifferencewhich didnt deceive anybody for a mo-ment

他装出漠不关心的样子,这一点也骗不了任何人。

put on clothes/glasses/jewellery 穿,戴(反义词是take off):

He put on a black coat so that he would be inconspicuous.(put a coaton/put it on

他穿了一件黑外套,为了让自己不显眼。

She put on her glasses and took the letter from my hand

她戴上了眼镜,拿过我手里的信。

put out any kind of light or fire 熄灭(灯或火):

Put out that light.(put the light out/put it out

把那灯关了。

put someone out 使某人不便:

He is very selfishHe wouldnt put himself out for anyone

他很自私。他绝不会为任何人出点力。

be put out 感到不快:

She was very put out when I said that her new summer dress didnt suither

我告诉她那件新的夏装不适合她时,她非常不高兴。

put uptr

a)建起(房屋、纪念物、雕像等):

He put up a shed in the garden.(put a shed up/put it up

他在花园里盖了一个棚子。

b)提价:

When the importation of foreign tomatoes was forbiddenhome growersput up their prices.(put their prices up/put them up

禁止进口外国的西红柿以后,国内种西红柿的人就提高价钱了。

put someone up(宾语常位于up之前) 暂时留某人住下:

If you come to Paris I will put you upYou neednt look for a hotel

如果你到巴黎来,可以住在我那儿。你不必去找旅馆了。

put someone up to something(常指某种诡计)怂恿某人去做某事,告诉某人如何做某事:

He couldnt have thought of that trick by himselfSomeone must haveput him up to it

他自己是想不出那个计谋的。一定是有人教他这么做的。

put up withtr 容忍:

We had to put up with a lot of noise when the children were at home

我们不得不忍受孩子们在家时的吵闹。

ring

ring offintr 挂断电话:

He rang off before I could ask his name

没等我问他的名字,他就把电话挂断了。

ring uptr/intr 打电话给某人:

I rang up the theatre to book seats for tonight.(rang the theatre up/rangthem up

我给剧院打了电话,预购今晚的票。

If you cant come ring up and let me know

你要是来不了,请打电话让我知道一声。

round

round uptr)(把人或动物)撵到一起:

The sheepdog rounded up the sheep and drove them through the gate

牧羊犬把羊撵到了一起,把它们赶过栅门。

On the day after the riots the police rounded up all suspects/rounded them up

暴乱后的那一天,警方把嫌疑者都抓起来了。

rub

rub outtr 用擦子或橡皮把字迹擦掉:

The child wrote down the wrong word and then rubbed it out.(rubbed the word out/rubbed out the word

孩子写错了一个字,又把它擦掉了。

rub uptr 复习,温习某项知识:

I am going to FranceI must rub up my French.(rub it up

我要去法国了。我得把法语温习一下。

run

run afterto)追逐(参见下面的例句)

run awayintr 逃跑,出走(离开家庭、学校等):

The thief ran away and the policeman ran after him

小偷逃跑了,警察追了去。

He ran away from home and got a job in a garage

他离家出走,在一家汽车修理站里找了个工作。

run away withtr)(感情)变得不可控制,(马匹)奔逸:

Dont let your emotions run away with you

不要听任感情失控。

His horse ran away with him and he had a bad fall

他骑的马狂奔起来,他摔得不轻。

run away with the idea 过分匆促地接受某种想法:

Dont run away with the idea that I am unsociableI just havent timeto go out much

不要轻信我不爱同人交往的说法;我只不过是没有时间经常外出而已。

run downtr 诋毁,说……的坏话:

He is always running down his neighbours.(running his neighbours down/running them down

他总是在说邻居的坏话。

run downintr 发条松了,电池没有电:

This torch is uselessthe battery has run down

这电筒没有用;电池没有电了。

be run downintr)(由于生病或工作过度而)身体坏了:

He is still run down after his illness and unfit for work

他病后仍然体力不佳,不适合工作。

run intotr 撞上(车辆等):

The car skidded and ran into a lamp-post

汽车打滑,撞上了电线竿。

run into/across someone 偶然遇见(某人):

I ran into my cousin in Harrods recently

我最近在哈洛德百货商店遇见了我表弟。

run out oftr 用光,吃喝无余:

I have run out of milkPut some lemon in your tea instead

我没有牛奶了。你在茶里放点柠檬吧。

run overtr)(车辆)轧过:

The drunk man stepped into the road right in front of the oncoming car

The driver couldnt stop in time and ran over him

醉汉走到马路上,正好到了开过来的汽车前面。司机来不及停车,从他身上轧过去了。

run overtr/intr 溢出:

He turned on both taps full and left the bathroomWhen he came backhe found that the water was running over/running over the edge of thebath

他把两个水龙头开到头,就走出了浴室。回来时他发现水已经溢出来了/溢出浴盆边沿了。

run over/throughtr 迅速地复习,检查,重读一下:

Weve got a few minutes before the train goesso Ill just run throughyour instructions again

火车开车以前还剩几分钟,所以我要再重复一下给你们的指示。

run throughtr 极度浪费(指供应品或钱):

He inherited a fortune and ran through it in a year

他继承了一大笔财产,一年之内就挥霍光了。

run up bills 由于不断赊购而积累起许多帐单:

Her husband said that she must pay for things at once and not run upbills

她丈夫说她得用现款购物,不该积起厚厚一叠帐单。

run up against difficulties/opposition 遭遇困难/反对:

If he tries to change the rules of the club he will run up against a lot ofopposition

如果他想改变俱乐部的章程,就会遇到很多反对意见。

see

see abouttr 过问并安排:

I must see abut getting a room ready for him

我得去给他设法准备好一个房间。

see somebody off 送人离去(上车、船、飞机等):

The station was crowded with boys going back to school and parents whowere seeing them off

车站里挤满了要回学校上学的男孩子们和送他们的家长们。

see somebody out 送(某人)出门:

When guests leave the host usually sees them out

客人走时,主人通常送出门。

Dont bother to come to the door with meI can see myself out

不用费力送我出去。我可以自己出去。

see over a house/a building 看房(常是为买房或租房准备):

Im definitely interested in the houseId like to see over it

我肯定对这所房子感兴趣。我想去看一下这房子。

see throughtr 看透(发现想骗人的那人心中的想法):

She pretended that she loved him but he saw through herand realizedthat she was only after his money

她假装爱他,可是他把她看透了,明白她只是看上了他的钱。(他没有被他/她的假装骗了。参见take in。)

see totr)安排,修好,纠正:

If you can provide the wine Ill see to the food

你要是能提供葡萄酒,我来负责食品。

That electric fire isnt safeYou should have it seen to

那个电炉不安全。你得找人修一下。

Please see to it that the door is locked

请留意一下把门锁好。

sell

sell offtr 廉价抛售以卖尽存货:

AssistantThis line is being discontinued so we are selling off the remainder of our stockthats why they are so cheap.(selling the rest off/selling it off

店员:这条生产线已停止了,所以我们在廉价出售存货;因此价格很便宜。

sell outintr 出清,售完:

When all the seats for a certain performance have been bookedtheatresput a notice sayingSold outoutside the booking office

某场演出票已订光时,剧院常在票房外面贴个通知:“票已售完”。

send

be sent downintr 由于行为不端被大学开除:

He behaved so badly in college that he was sent down and never got hisdegree

他在大学里行为极为恶劣,以致被开除了,从未拿到学位。

send fortr 派人找来:

One of our water pipes has burstWe must send for the plumber

我们有个自来水管漏水了,得找水管工来。

The director sent for me and asked for an explanation

院长把我找去了,要求我做出解释。

send intr 寄送到某人处(此人不必说出,因为听话的人早已知道):

You must send in your application before Friday.(send your applicationin/send it in

你必需在星期五以前把申请书送上去。

send ontr 转交,转递,转寄:

If any letters come for you after you have gone I will send them on.(sendon your letters/send your letters on

如果你走了以后有你的信,我会转寄给你的。

set

set inintr 开始(常指一段令人不愉快的时期):

Winter has set in early this year

今年的冬季开始得早。

set offtr 开始(一系列事件),引发:

That strike set off a series of strikes throughout the country.(set themoff

那一次罢工引发了全国一系列的罢工。

set off/outintr 动身,上路:

They set out/off at six and hoped to arrive before dark

他们在6点钟动身,希望在天黑以前到。

如果提到了目的地,则要用介词for引导:

They set out/off for Rome

他们动身上罗马去了。

set out+不定式 开始,以……为目的(常带show指给看/prove证明/explain解释或其他类似动词的不定式):

In this book the author sets out to prove that the inhabitants of the islandscame from South America

在本书中作者意图证明这些岛的居民来自南美洲。

set uptr 创立(纪录):

He set up a ner record for the 1000 metres.(set a new record up/set itup

他创下了千米赛跑的新纪录。

set upintr 开办(新商号):

When he married he left his fathers shop and set up on his own

 

他结婚后离开了他父亲的商店,自己开一家店。

settle

settle downintr 安居下来,安顿下来,安于新的地方/职业等:

He soon settled down in his new school

他在新的学校里很快就习惯了。

settle upintr 付清欠款:

Tell me what I owe you and Ill settle up

告诉我我欠你多少钱,我会付清的。

shout

shout downtr 高声喊叫,不让演讲人说话,哄台:

Tom tried to make a speech defending himself but the crowd wouldntlisten to his explanation and shouted him down

汤姆想讲话为自己辩护,可是人群不肯听他的解释,把他哄下去了。

The moderate speakers were shout down

那些主张克制的演讲者们被哄下去了。

show

show offtr/intr 炫耀,引人注目:

Although Jules speaks English perfectlymy cousin spoke French to himall the time just to show off

虽说儒尔英语说得很好,我表妹一直跟他说法语以便炫耀一番。

He is always picking up very heavy things just to show off his strengthshow it off

他常拿起很重的东西以显示自己的力气。

shut

shut downtr/intr 关闭(参见close down

sit

sit backintr 放松,不动手,不干活:

I have worked hard all my life and now Im going to sit back and watchother people working

我这辈子一直努力干,现在要轻松轻松,看着别人干了。

sit upintr 坐着熬夜,过了点而不去睡(常指因阅读、工作或等人):

I was very worried when he didnt come in and I sat up till 3 amwait-ing for him

他没回家,我很担心,一直不去睡而等到凌晨3点钟。

She sat up all night with the sick child

她整夜陪着生病的孩子没有睡。

stand

stand by someonetr 继续支持并帮助某人,为某人撑腰:

No matter what happens Ill stand by youso dont be afraid

不管发生什么事我都支持你,别怕。

stand fortr 代表:

The symbolxusually stands for the unknown quantity in mathematics

在数学中,“x”这个符号常代表未知数。

stand for Parliament 竞选议员:

Mr Pitt stood for Parliament five years ago but he wasnt elected

皮特先生五年前曾竞选议员职位,可是没有当选。

stand outintr 易于看到,显眼:

She stood out from the crowd because of her height and her flaming red hair

由于她个子高,又长了一头火红的头发,她站在人群里很显眼。

stand up fortr 为……辩护:

His father blamed himbut his mother stood up for him and said that hehad acted sensibly

他爸爸责怪他,可是他妈妈为他辩护,说他做得有道理。

Why dont you stand up for yourself

你为什么不为自己辩护?

tand up totr 抗拒,不屈服:

This type of building stands up to the gales very well

这种建筑很能抗拒大风。

Your boss is a bullyIf you dont stand up to him hell lead you a dogslife

你的老板是个仗势欺人之辈。你要是向他屈服,他会把你欺负死。

stay

stay upintr 过时不睡(通常为了娱乐):

Children never want to go to bed at the proper timethey always want tostay up late

孩子们总是不想按时上床睡觉;他们老是想晚点睡。

step

step uptr 增速,加快(常指工业生产等):

This new machine will step up production.(step it up

这台新机器将使生产加快。

take

be taken abackintr 感到惊讶失措:

I was taken aback when I saw the bill

我看到帐单时大吃一惊。

take aftertr)长得像(父母、祖父母等):

He takes after his grandmothershe had red hair too

他长得像他的祖母。他祖母也是红头发。

My father was forgetful and I take after himI forget everything

我爸爸爱忘事儿,而我就像他。我什么都忘。

take backtr 收回(所说的话、指责等):

I blamed him bitterly at first but laterwhen I heard the whole storyIrealized that he had been right and I went to him and took back my re-markstook them back

起初我痛切地指责他,但是后来当我知道了事情的全部情况时,就明白他是对的,所以我去找他收回我说的话。

take downtr 写下来(常指听写):

He read out the names and his secretary took them down.(took down thenames/took the names down

他把人名念出来,他的秘书则把那些名字记下来。

take fortr 错认:

I took him for his brotherThey are extremely alike

我把他错认成他的兄弟了。他俩长得像极了。

Do you take me for a fool

你难道把我当成傻子不成?

take intr

a)欺骗,骗而使信:

At first he took us in by his stories and we tried to help himbut later welearnt that his stories were all lies

起初他编的那些故事使我们相信他了,我们还想帮助他;可后来我们听说那全是谎话。

b)接待,收留住下:

When our car broke down I knocked on the door of the nearest house

The owner very kindly took us in and gave us a bed for the night

我们的汽车坏了时,我敲最近的一家人家的门。房主很好心地收留了我们,给我们一张床过夜。

People who live by the sea often take in paying guests during the sum-mer.(take paying guests in/take them in

住在海滨的人常在夏天留游客住宿,挣一些房钱。

c)理解,(思想上)接受:

I was thinking of something else while she was speaking and I didnt re-ally take in what she was saying

她说话时我在想别的事,并没有真正理解她说的话。

I couldnt take in the lecture at allIt was too difficult for me.(couldnttake it in

讲座我完全听不懂。它对我来说太难了。

d)改窄,改瘦(指衣服):

Im getting much thinnerIll have to take in my clothes.(take my clothes in/take them in

我瘦多了,得把衣服改瘦。

take offtr 取下,脱下,褪去(指衣服时为put on的反义词):

He took off his coat when he entered the house and put it on again whenhe went out.(took his coat off/took it off

他进屋时脱下了外衣,出屋时又把它穿上了。

take offintr (飞机等)起飞,离地升空:

There is often a spectators balcony at airports where people can watchthe planes taking off and landing

机场常设有看台,供人们观看飞机起飞降落。

take on

a)承担工作:

She wants someone to look after her childrenI shouldnt care to take onthe jobThey are very spoilt.(take the job on/take it on

她想找人给她照料孩子。我可不想承担这份工作。她的孩子们都被宠坏了。

b)雇用,招工:

Theyre taking on fifty new workers at the factory

这家工厂要招收50名新工人。

c)接受某人为对手,应战:

Ill take you on at table tennis

我跟你打一局乒乓球试试。

I took on Mr Pitt at draughts.(took Mr Pitt on/took him on

我接受皮特先生的应战,跟他下国际象棋。

take outtr 除去,清除:

Petrol will take out that stain.(take the stain out/take it out

汽油能除去那块污渍。

The dentist took out two of her teeth

牙科医生给她拔去两颗牙。

take somebody out 请人到外面去吃饭娱乐:

Her small boy is at boarding school quite near hereI take him out everymonth

她的小男孩在离这儿很近的地方上寄宿学校。我每个月带他出来吃顿饭。

take overtr/intr 接受,接手,接管:

We stop work at ten oclock and the night shift takes over until the fol-lowing morning

我们10点钟停止工作,夜班接班一直工作到第二天早上。

Miss Smith is leaving to get married and Miss Jones will be taking overthe class/Miss Jones will be taking over from Miss Smith

史密斯小姐要离职去结婚了,琼斯小姐将接手管理她的班级。(参见hand over。)

take totr

a)开始养成习惯。它常给人一种印象,即说话人认为这种习惯是坏习惯或是有点愚蠢的习惯,但也并非一定如此。后面常带动名词:

He took to drink

他开始喝酒上瘾了。

He took to borrowing money from the petty cash

他开始有了从小额现款中“借”用零用现金的习惯。

b)对某人有好感,被(某物)所吸引(特别是首次见到时):

I was introduced to the new headmistress yesterdayI cant say I took toher

昨天我被介绍给新来的女校长。我很难说我对她有好感。

He went to sea and took to the life like a duck to water

他当海员去了,就像鸭子爱水一样爱上了这种生活。

c)进入……似求逃命:

When they saw that the ship was sinking the crew took to the boats

船员们看到船要下沉了,就上了救生船以求逃命。

After the failure of the coup many of the rebels took to the hills and be-came guerillas

政变失败后,许多反叛的人上山打游击去了。

take uptr

a)开始一种业余爱好、运动或学习(这里没有批评的意思):

He took up golf and became very keen on it.(took it up

他玩起了高尔夫球,并且变得很热衷于其中。

b)占有(时间或空间):

He has a very small room and most of the space is taken up by a grandpiano

他住一个很小的房间,房间里一多半地方被一台大三角钢琴占去了。

A lot of an MPs time is taken up with answering letters from his con-stituents

国会议员要花不少时间给他的选民写回信。

talk

talk overtr)讨论:

Talk it over with your wife and give me your answer tomorrow.(talkover my suggestion/talk my suggestion over

你和你夫人把这件事好好谈一下,明天给我个回音。

think

think overtr 考虑:

I cant decide straight away but Ill think over your idea and let youknow what I decide.(think your idea over/think it over

我眼下没法决定,可是我会把你的想法好好想一下,再让你知道我的决定。

throw

throw away/outtr 扔掉,抛弃(废物等):

Throw away those old shoesNobody could wear them now.(throw theshoes away/throw them away

把那些旧鞋都扔掉。现在谁也不会穿它们。

throw uptr 突然放弃(某种工作或计划):

He suddenly got tired of the job and threw it up.(he threw up the job/threw the job up

他忽然厌倦了这个工作,就不干了。

tie

tie someone up 捆住某人手脚使不能动弹:

The thieves tied up the night watchman before opening the safe.(tied the man up/tied him up

盗匪在开保险柜之前将值夜班的警卫捆了起来。

try

try ontr 试穿(衣物):

Customer in dress shopI like this dressCould I try it on?(try thisdress on/try on this dress

服装店中的顾客:我喜欢这件衣服。能试穿一下吗?

try outtr 试验:

We wont know how the plan works till we have tried it out

我们要到试验过这个计划以后才能知道它的效果如何。

They are trying out new ways of preventing noise in hospitals.(tryingthem out

人们在试验使用新的方法阻止医院里的噪音。

turn

turn awaytr 拒之门外,阻挡在门外:

The man at the door turned away anybody who hadnt an invitation card.(turned them away

站在门口的这个人把没有请帖的人都拒之门外。

turn downtr 拒绝,不批谁,拒不接受建议、申请、申请的人等:

I applied for the job but they turned me down/turned down my applica-tion because I didnt know German

我申请这个职务,但是他们拒绝了我/我的申请,因为我不懂德语。

He was offered 500 for the picture but he turned it down.(turneddown the offer/turned the offer down

人家提出要以500镑买他那幅画,但他拒绝了。

turn inintr 上床睡觉(主要为海员、露营者等所用):

The captain turned innot realizing that the icebergs were so close

船长上床睡觉了,没有意识到冰山已靠得这么近了。

turn intotr 转换为,变为:

I am going to turn my garage into a playroom for the children

我要把车库改建为孩子们的游戏室。

She turned the silver candlestick into a reading lamp

她把这个银烛台改成了一盏阅读灯。

turn ontr)(重音在turn上)突然袭击(袭击者常是朋友或

一头过去表示友好的野兽):

The tigress turned on the trainer and struck him to the ground

雌虎突然袭击驯虎人,把他打倒在地。

turn on/offtr /关(电灯、煤气、炉灶、收音机、水龙头等)turn outtr

a)生产,产出:

The creamery turns out two hundred tons of butter a week.(turns it out)这家奶制品厂每周生产200吨黄油。

b)逐出,翻出,腾空:

1 turn a person out 将人逐出家屋/套房/居室:

At one timeif tenants didnt pay their rent the landlord could turn themout

从前,如果房客付不起房租,房东可以把他们赶出去。

2 turn out ones pockets/handbags/drawers etc

将衣袋/手提包/抽屉等翻空,常是为了寻找某物:

Turn out your pockets,’said the detective

侦探说:“把你口袋里的东西都翻出来。”

3 turn out a room 彻底打扫,先将家具搬出去:

I try to turn out one room every month if I have time

我尽量在有工夫的时候每个月彻底打扫一个房间。

turn outintr

a)集合,上街(常是为了欢迎某人):

The whole town turned out to welcome the winning football team whenthey came back with the Cup

得胜的足球队捧着奖杯凯旋而归时,城里人万人空巷地欢迎他们。

b)发展,变化,结果:

Ive never made Yorkshire pudding before so I am not quite sure how it isgoing to turn out

我以前从来没有做过约克郡布丁,因此我不知道这一次做出来的会结果如何。

Marriages arranged by marriage bureaux frequently turn out well.由婚姻介绍所安排的婚姻结果常常美满。

c)原来是……(注意有两种结构:it turned out that…和he turned out to be…):

He told her that he was a bachelor but it turned out that he was marriedwith six children

他告诉她说他是单身汉,可事实证明他原来已经结婚了,有六个孩子。

Our car broke down half way through the journey but the hiker we hadpicked up turned out to be an expert mechanic and was able to put thingsright

我们的汽车走到半路坏了,可是路上搭我们便车的那人敢情是个熟练的修车工,把车给修好了。

注意turn outcome out不同。用turn out时,后来所发现的事总是要说出来的,而且也并不暗示这事是坏事。用come out时,只告诉人说某些事实已经被揭露了(这些事实常是名声不好的),但不说明这些事实的内容。

turn overtr)翻过来:

He turned over the stone.(turned the stone over/turned it over

他把石头翻了过来。

The initialsPTOat the bottom of a page meanPlease turn over’.

在一页下端的首字母缩写“PTO”意思是“请看背面”。

Turn over a new leaf.’

“翻开新的一页。”(再次开始,痛改前非。)

turn overintr

a)翻转(指车、船等交通工具):

The car struck the wall and turned over

汽车撞到墙上,翻了个个儿。

The canoe turned overthrowing the boys into the water

独木舟翻了,把男孩子们抛入水中。

b)翻身(指人):

It is difficult to turn over in a hammock

睡吊床时翻身很困难。

When his alarm went off he just turned over and went to sleep again

他的闹钟响时,他只是翻了个身,又睡着了。

turn up/downtr 开大/关小,增加/减小压力、力量、容量、音量等(指煤气、石油、灯火、炉灶、或收音机等):

Turn up the gasit is much too low

把煤气灶开大一些,火太小了。

I wish the people in the next flat would turn down their radioYou canhear every word.(turn the sound down/turn it down

我真希望隔壁套房里的人家能把收音机音量调小些。你都能听到每个字。

turn upintr 出现,到来(通常是从等待或搜寻的人的角度来讲):

We arranged to meet at the station but she didnt turn up

我们商量好在车站见面,可是她没有露面。

Dont bother to look for my umbrellait will turn up some day

别费心找我的伞了;它迟早会自己出来的。

wait

wait ontr 伺候,上饭菜(在家里或在饭馆里):

He expected his wife to wait on him hand and foot

他指望他妻子跑前跑后地伺候他。

The man who was waiting on us seemed very inexperiencedhe got allour orders mixed up

那个给我们服务的人好像很缺乏经验,把我们叫的菜全搞混了。

walk

walk outintr 大步走出去,退场(因为愤怒、不满或讨厌等):

Some people were so disgusted with the play that they walked out in themiddle of the first act

有些人对这剧感到非常厌恶,以致在第一幕演到一半时就退场了。

wash

wash uptr/intr)(在饭后)洗碗碟餐具:

When we have dinner very late we dont wash up till the next morning

wash up the dishes/wash them up

我们晚饭要是吃得很晚,就把碗碟放到第二天早上再洗。

watch

watch outintr 当心,留神,注意

watch out fortr 留意,小心提防,注意寻找(参见look outfor

wear

wear awayintr 逐渐磨损或磨平,磨蚀出凹痕(常指木、石等,而且主语常为风雨等自然力或踏踩、拭抚此的人等)

It is almost impossible to read the inscription on the monument as most ofthe letters have been worn away

由于多数的字母久经风雨,纪念碑上的铭文已经无法卒读了。

wear offintr 逐渐消失(可以按字面意义使用,但主要用来指体力或精神上的感觉):

These glasses may seem uncomfortable at first but that feeling will soonwear off

这副眼镜可能起初戴着不舒服,但是那种感觉逐渐就会没有了。

When her first feeling of shyness had worn off she started to enjoy her-self

她开头的羞涩感逐渐消失时,她便开始玩得高兴起来。

He began to try to sit upwhich showed us that the effects of the drugwere wearing off

他开始试图坐起身来,这向我们表明药力正在消退。

wear outtr/intr

a)(tr)用到无法再用为止;(intr)由于经常使用而破损,不能再用(常用于衣物):

Children wear out their shoes very quickly.(wear their shoes out/wear them out

孩子穿鞋时破得很快。

Cheap clothes wear out quickly

便宜的衣服破得快。

b)(tr)使疲惫,耗竭(指人;常用被动态):

He worked all night and wanted to go on working the next daybut wesaw that he was completely worn out and persuaded him to stop

他干了个通宵,还想第二天接着干,可是我们看到他已经筋疲力尽,就劝他停止工作。

wind

wind uptr/intr)(使)结束(常指演讲或业务过程):

The headmaster wound upthe meetingby thanking the parents

wound the meeting up/wound it up

校长以向家长们表示感谢结束了这次会议。

wipe

wipe outtr 消灭,彻底毁坏:

The epidemic wiped out whole familieswiped whole families out/wiped them out

这次瘟疫使许多人家绝户了。

work

work outtr 通过运算或研究取得某问题的解决或处理方法,研究并决定某一计划的细节:

He used his calculator to work out the cost.(work the cost out

他用计算器算出了需支付多少钱。

Tell me where you want to go and Ill work out a route

你告诉我你想上哪儿,我就会给你安排出一条路线来。

This is the outline of the planWe want the committee to work out the details.(work them out

这就是计划的提纲。我们想让委员会商议出细节来。


 

 

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