第三十四章 原因从句、结果从句、
发布日期:2021-07-22 22:18:27 浏览次数:2 分类:技术文章

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338 原因从句和结果/原因从句

 

除了下面A2A3中所示各种类型外,这两种从句均可由asbecause来引导。但是用as引导原因从句较为稳妥(参见A);用because引导结果/原因从句较为稳妥(参见B)。

A 原因从句

1 asbecausesince 引导的原因从句:

We camped there asbecausesince it was too dark to go on

我们在那里露宿是因为天太黑,不能再继续往前走了。

AsBecauseSince it was too dark to go onwe camped there

因为天太黑不能再继续往前走,我们就在那儿露宿了。

2 in view of the fact that可用assinceseeing that来表示,但不能用because

AsSinceSeeing that you are hereyou may as well give me a hand

既然你在这儿,你就帮我个忙吧。

AsSinceSeeing that Tom knows Frenchhed better do the talking

既然汤姆懂法语,最好让他来谈。

3 assinceseeing that意指以前共知的或共知的陈述时,可用if来代替:

AsSinceSeeing thatIf you dont like Billwhy did you invite him

既然/如果你不喜欢比尔,你为什么邀请了他?

注意:if so的用法:

I hope Bill wont come

If so(=If you hope he wont come),why did you invite him

—我希望比尔别来。

—如果这样(=如果你希望他不来),你为什么邀请了他?

关于ifsonot,参见第347节。

B 结果从句(参见第339节)由becauseas引导:

The fuse blew because we had overloaded the circuit

保险丝烧断了,因为我们使线路超载了。

He was angry because we were late

他生气是因为我们来晚了。

As it froze hard that night there was ice everywhere next day

因为那天晚上冷得厉害,所以第二天到处都是冰。

As the soup was very salty we were thirsty afterwards

因为这汤很咸,后来我们渴得厉害。

C 这种组合也可用so连接两个主句的形式来表示:

It was too dark to go onso we camped there

天太黑了,不能继续往前走了,所以我们就在那儿露宿了。

You are hereso you may as well give me a hand

你们既然在这儿,不如就帮我一下。

It froze hard that nightso there was ice everywhere next day

那天夜里冷得厉害,所以第二天到处都是冰。

也可以使用therefore,但只限用于非常正式的句子中:

The Finnish delegate has not yet arrivedWe are therefore postponing We have therefore decided to postponeTherefore we are postponing the meeting

芬兰代表还没有到达。我们因此要把会议推迟/因此我们已决定把会议推迟/因此我们要把会议推迟。(注意therefore可以放在几个不同的位置。)


339 suchsothat引导的结果从句

 

A such是形容词,用于形容词+名词结构之前:

They had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near their house

他们有一条如此凶猛的狗,以致没人敢靠近他们家。

He spoke for such a long time that people began to fall asleep

他说了这么长时间,以致在座的人都犯困了。

B so是副词,用于副词和不带名词的形容词之前:

The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered up

雪下得这么快,以致我们的脚印很快就被雪盖住了。

His speech went on for so long that people began to fall asleep

他的讲话这么长,以致在座的人都开始犯困了。

Their dog was so fierce that no one dared come near it

他们的狗太凶猛了,所以没人敢靠近它。

such不能用于muchmany之前,所以so可用于后跟名词的muchmany之前:

There was so much dust that we couldnt see what was happening

灰尘太大了,使得我们看不清发生了什么事。

So many people complained that they took the programme off

抱怨的人太多,所以他们取消了那个节目。

C 注意:sucha+形容词+名词可由so+形容词+a+名词来代替,所以such a good man可由so good a man来代替。这只能在名词前面有aan的情况下使用。这种形式不常见,但有时出现在文学作品中。

有时为了表示强调,so位于句首。这时后面跟动词的倒装形式(参见第45节):

So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped off

暴风真可怕,把整个的屋顶全都刮飞了。


340 让步从句

 

它们由下列词来引导:althoughthough(参见第327节与第329节),even thougheven ifno matterhowever(参见第85节)。有时也可以使用whateveras也可以,但是只限于形容词+asbe结构。

AlthoughThoughEven thoughEven if you dont like him you can still be polite

尽管/即使/纵然/即使你不喜欢他,你仍可有礼貌一些。

No matter what you dodont touch this switch

无论怎样,都别碰这个按钮。

However rich people arethey always seem anxious to make more mon ey

无论人们多么富有,他们似乎总还渴望赚到更多的钱。

However carefully you driveyou will probably have an accident eventual ly

无论你开车多小心,最后你大概还会出车祸。

Whatever you dodont tell him that I told you this

无论如何,别跟他说这件事是我告诉你的。

Patient as he washe had no intention of waiting for three hours

哪怕他再有耐心,也不打算等上三个小时。

may+动词原形可用于假设情况:

However frightened you may be yourselfyou must remain outwardly calm

无论你有多害怕,外表上你仍要保持冷静。

may含有I accept the fact that(我接受这一事实)的意思:

But hes your brother

He may be my brother but I dont trust him

—可他是你的兄弟!

—尽管他是我的兄弟,可我不信任他!

may这样用时,是另一主句的一部分,并不属于让步从句之列。should+动词原形结构可用于even if之后,正如用于条件句的if之后一样,用来表示should后面的动词原形所指的动作不太可能发生:

Even if he should find out he wont do anything about it

即便他发现了,他也不会采取什么行动的。


 


341 比较从句

 

A 形容词和限定动词连用时的比较(另参见第20节至第22节):

Its darker today than it was yesterday

今天比昨天天色昏暗。

He doesnt pay as much tax as we doas us

他没我们交的税款多。

He spends more than he earns

他花的比挣的多。

注意:that+形容词是一种口语形式,表示“那么……”:

Will it cost100

Noit wont cost as much asallthatIt wont beallthat expen

sive./It wont be as expensive as that

—要花100英镑吗?

—不,花不了那么多。没那么贵。

that+形容词结构有时用于口语中表示very(很)的意思。

B 副词和限定动词连用时的比较(参见第31节至第34节):

He didnt play as well as we expectedas well as youdid).

他打得不如我们预料的好/你打得好。

He sings more loudly than anyone Ive ever heardthan anyone else does).

他唱得比我听到的任何人唱得都响/比任何人都声音响。

You work harder than he doesthan himthan I did at your age

你比他干得卖劲/我在你这个年龄时干得卖劲。

C 形容词和不定式或动名词连用时的比较:

通常两者都可使用,但动词不定式常常用于特定的动作,动名词则用于一般情况(参见下面E):

Its sometimes as cheap to buy a new one asit is)(torepair the old one

Buying a new one is sometimes as cheap as repairing the old one

有时买一个新的跟修理旧的一样便宜。

He found that lying on the beach was just as boring as sitting in his office

He found lying on the beach just as boring as sitting etc

他发现躺在沙滩上和坐在办公室里一样没趣/烦人。

He thinks itissafer to drive himself thantolet me drive

He thinks that driving himself is safer than letting me drive

他认为自己开车要比让我开车更安全些。

It will soon be more difficult to get a visa than it is now

Getting a visa will soon be more difficult than it is now

不久之后,签证会比现在更难拿到。

D 上面C所述的这种比较句式中,如asthan前面用的是动词原形,则常在asthan后面用动词原形而不用动名词。与此相同,如asthan前面用的是动名词,则在其后面一般也使用动名词,而不用动词原形,见前面的例子。位于asthan之前的限定动词+thisthatwhich后面多跟动名词,虽也可跟动词不定式:

Ill deliver it by handthis will be cheaper than posting it

我自己送过去,这样比邮寄要便宜。

He cleaned his shoeswhich was better than doing nothing

他把自己的鞋擦了,这总比无事可做好。

E 动词原形与would rathersooner连用(参见第297与第298节):

Most people would rather work than starve

多数人宁可工作也不愿挨饿。

I would resign rather than accept him as a partner

我宁可辞职也不愿接受他为合伙人。


 

342 时间从句

 

A 时间从句由下列表示时间的连词来引导:

after                      immediately                tilluntil

as                          nosoonerthan          when

as soon as              since                         whenever

before                    the sooner                  while

hardlywhen

时间从句也可由the minutethe moment来引导。

whenaswhile的例句,参见第331节至第333节。

before的例句,参见第195B

B 请留意,时间从句中不用将来时态或条件时态。

1 如将下列将来时态放入时间从句中,须将它变为一般时态。

一般将来时:

Youll be back soonIll stay till then

你会很快回来,我一直等到那时。相当于:

Ill stay till you get back

我一直等到你回来。

be going to形式:

The parachutist is going to jumpSoon after he jumps his parachute will open

跳伞运动员要往下跳。他刚跳之后不久,降落伞就会打开。

现在进行时用做一般将来时和将来进行时:

Hes arrivingHell be arriving at six

他将在6点到。

但是:

When he arrives hell tell us all about the match

等他到了,他会好好给我们讲讲那场比赛。

Before he arrives Ill give the children their tea

在他来到之前,我会给孩子们吃茶点的。

如进行时态表示某一行动在继续,则其完全可以用在表示时间的从句中:

Peter and John will be playingare playingare going to play tennis tonightWhile they are playingduring this timewell go to the beach

今晚彼得和约翰要去打网球。他们打球时,我们将去海滨。

2 在时间从句中,将来完成时变为现在完成时,将来完成进行时变为现在完成进行时:

Ill have finished in the bathroom in a few minutes

我一会儿就用完浴室了。

The momentAs soon as I have finished Ill give you a call

我一完事儿,就给你打电话。

3 在时间从句中,条件时态变为过去时态:

We knew that he would arrivewould be arriving about six

我们知道他将在六点钟左右到。

We knew that till he arrived nothing would be done

我们知道在他到来之前,什么都干不了。

但是,如when引导的是一个名词从句,后面可跟将来时态或条件时态:

He said,‘When will the train get in?’

他说:“火车什么时候进站?”相当于:

He asked when the train would get in

他问火车什么时候进站。

C since从句(参见第187与第188节)

since从句后面常跟完成时态(另参见第188节):

Theyve moved house twice since they got married./Since they gotmarriedtheyve moved house twice

他们结婚后已搬了两次家。

He said hed lived in a tent since his house burnt down

他说自从他的房屋被烧毁后,他就一直住在帐篷里。

Its ages since I sailedhave sailed a boat

我未驾驶帆船已有好多年了。

I havent sailed a boat since I left college

自从我大学毕业后就没再驾驶帆船了。

D after从句

after从句之后常跟完成时态:

AfterWhen he had rung off I remembered

等他把电话挂断了之后,我才想起……

AfterWhen youve finished with ithang it up

你用完了之后,请把它挂起来。

E hardlyscarcely whenno sooner than(另参见第45节):

The performance had hardly begun when the lights went out

Hardly had the performance begun when the lights went out

演出刚开始就停电了。

这里可以用scarcely代替hardly,但不常见。

He had no sooner drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy

No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy

他喝了咖啡没多一会儿,就犯困了。

He no sooner earns any money than he spends it

Immediately he earns any money he spends it

他钱一挣到手,就花光了。

注意the soonerthe sooner的用法:

The sooner we startthe sooner well be there

我们动身得越早,到那儿就越早。


 

 


 

 

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