第三十三章 目的
发布日期:2021-07-22 22:18:28 浏览次数:2 分类:技术文章

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334 不定式表示目的

 

表示目的时可以使用下列各种方法:

A 单独的不定式:

He went to France to learn French

他去法国学习法语。

They stopped to ask the way

他们停下来问路。

当主要动词之后有一个间接宾语时,不定式可能指这个间接宾语而不是指主语:

He sent Tom to the shop to buy bread

他派汤姆到店里去买面包。(该由汤姆而不该由主语“他”去买面包。)

B in orderso as+不定式

in order+不定式意指主语想要做这一动作,或主语很希望这一动作发生。

so as+不定式仅指主语很希望某一动作发生。因此in order +不定式比so as+不定式更为普遍。

in orderso as也常用于以下情况:

1 与否定不定式连用,表示否定性的目的:

He left his gun outside in orderso as not to frighten us

为了不使我们受到惊吓,他把枪放在了外面。

2 to beto have连用:

She left work early in order/so as to be at home when he arrived

为了在家等他到达,她提前下了班。

She gave up work in order/so as to have more time with the children

为了能有更多的时间和孩子们相处,她放弃了工作。

3 表示不是近期能实现的目的:

He is studying mathematics in orderso as to qualify for a better job

他学习数学是为了能有资格做更好的工作。

She learnt typing in order to help her husband with his work

她学习打字是为了帮助她丈夫工作。

4 有时在较长的句子中,用于强调不定式表示目的:

He was accused of misrepresenting the facts in orderso as to make the scheme seem feasible

人们指责他为了使计划显得可行而没有如实地把真相说出来。

He took much more trouble over the figures than he usually did in orderso as to show his new boss what a careful worker he was

为了向新老板显示他是工作非常细心的人,他在这些数字上费了比往常更多的力气。

(但是in orderso as并非必要,有时是可省略的。)

表示目的的不定式位于主要动词之前时,in orderso as可位于句首:

In orderSo as to show his boss what a careful worker he washe took ex tra trouble over the figures

为了向新老板显示他是个工作非常细心的人,他在这些数字上费了比平常更多的力气。(但这里的in orderso as也可以省略。)

5 句中有一个间接宾语而要想让不定式毫不含混地指主语时,可用so asin order

He sent his sons to a boarding school in orderso as to have some peace

为了图清静,他把他的儿子们送进了寄宿学校。(这里是指他要清静,而不是他的儿子们。)

比较:

He sent his sons to a boarding school to learn to live in a community

为了让儿子们学会在集体中生活,他把儿子们送进了寄宿学校。(是让他的儿子们学会在集体中生活,而不是他。)

但是in orderso as的这种用法不是很普遍,更常说:

He sent his sons to a boarding school because he wanted to have some peace

他把儿子们送进寄宿学校,因为他想清静点儿。

C in order(不包括so as)可用于强调不定式所表示的是主语脑子里真正想要达到的目的:

He bought diamonds when he was in Amsterdam

That wasnt surprisingHe went to Amsterdam in order to buy dia monds

—他在阿姆斯特丹时竟买了一些钻石!

—这并不奇怪,他就是为了买钻石才去阿姆斯特丹的。(不是为了其他目的。)

另外也可用重读第一个动词而省略in order的方法来表示同样的意思:

Hewent to Amsterdam to buy diamonds

他去阿姆斯特丹就是为了买钻石。

D 不定式+名词+介词:

I want a case to keep my records in

我想要一个盒子来保存我的唱片。

I need a corkscrew to open this bottle with

我需要一个螺丝刀来打开瓶塞。

注意:这里谈论的是特指的目的。

关于泛指的目的可用for+动名词结构来表示:

This is a case for keeping records in

这是用来保存唱片的盒子。

A corkscrew is a tool for opening bottles

螺丝刀是用来开启瓶塞的工具。


335 用于gocome之后的目的不定式

 

一般在祈使语气或gocome的不定式之后不再使用目的不定式。常用Go and find Bill(去把比尔找来)来代替Go to find Bill;用Come and talk to Ann(来跟安说说话)来代替Come to talk to Ann。即:两个祈使动词用and连接起来时可代替一个命令+目的不定式。

在一般情况下说:

I must go and help my mother

我必须去帮助我母亲。

Ill come and check the accounts

我将来清理账目。

而不是说:

I must go to help my mother

Ill come to check the accounts

即:用and连接两个不定式结构来代替不定式+目的不定式结构。(参见第246节Ⅰ。)

但如gocome用做动名词或以任何现在时态和过去时态出现时,应带一个表示目的的不定式:

Im thinking of going to look for mushrooms

我想去采蘑菇。

I went to help my mother

我去帮助母亲了。

Ive come to check the accounts

我来查账来了。

I didnt come to talk to BillI came to talk to you

我不是来跟比尔说话的;我是来跟你说话的。


 


336 目的从句

 

如目的所指的人与主句中的主语不同,或原主语再次被提到,则必须使用目的从句:

Ships carry lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks

大船上带有救生艇,万一船下沉船员可以逃生。

This knife has a cork handle so that it will float if it falls overboard

这把刀的柄是用软木做的,万一从船上掉下去,它可以浮在水面上。

A 目的从句常由so thatwillwouldcancould+动词原形结构来表示。

这里cancould意为willwould be able to

They make10 notes a different size from5 notes so that blind people can(=will be able totell the difference between them

他们把十英镑的纸币和五英镑的纸币做成不同大小,以便使盲人可以区分开来。

They wrote the notices in several languages so that foreign tourists could =would be able tounderstand them

他们把通知用几国文字写出来,以便让各国游客都能看得懂。

如句子的主要动词是一般现在时、一般完成时或一般将来时,则都可用canwill。如主要动词是一般过去时,则使用couldwould。请看上面和下面这些例句:

I lightam lightinghave litwill light the fire so that the house will be warm when they return

我点着/正在点着/已点着/将要点着炉子,以便等他们回来时屋子就暖和了。

I have givenwill give him a key so that he can get into the house when ever he likes

我已经给/会给他一把钥匙,好让他能随时进来。

I pinned the note to his pillow so that he would be sure to see it

我把纸条用针别在他的枕头上了,好让他一定能看得见。

There were telephone points every kilometre so that drivers whose cars had broken down would be able tocould summon help

每公里都有求援电话点,以便汽车出了毛病时司机可随时呼唤帮助。

如果带cancould的目的从句中省去that,那么这一目的性可能随之消失。He took my shoes so that I couldnt leave the house(他把我的鞋拿走了,好让我出不了门)意为He took my shoes to prevent my leaving(他把鞋拿走是为了阻止我离开)。但是He took my shoesso I couldnt leave the house(他把鞋拿走了,我出不了门)意为He took my shoestherefore I wasnt able to leave(他把我的鞋拿走了,所以我不能够出门)。

B so thatin order thatthatmaymightshallshould+不定式结构也可构成目的从句。这种结构仅比上面A中所示的结构更为正规,在意思上是相同的。

注意:so that之后可跟willcanmayshall或它们的过去式。

in order thatthat之后只限跟mayshall或它们的过去式。

that除在戏剧、诗歌及文章中外极少单独使用。

关于时态一致的规定与上文所述相同。下文的句子是很正式的:

We carved their names on the stone so thatin order that future genera tions shouldmight know what they had done

我们把他们的名字刻在石头上,为的是让后代们知道他们的事迹。

These men risk their lives so thatin order that we may live more safely

这些人甘冒生命危险,为的是让我们生活更安全。

在一般现在时中mayshall更常见,shall现已很少用。但在一般过去时中mightshould都可使用。对上述形式要有所了解,但并不见得需要用,因为在一般情况下,用so that cancouldwillwould就足够了。

C 表示否定目的的从句由助动词(willwouldshould)变为否定式构成:

He wrote his diary in code so that his wife wouldnt be able to read it

为了不让妻子看懂,他用密码写日记。

He changed his name so that his new friends wouldntshouldnt know that he had once been accused of murder

为了不让新朋友们知道他曾被控犯有谋杀罪,他改了名字。

Criminals usually telephone from public telephone boxes so that the police wont be able to trace the call

罪犯常在公用电话亭打电话,好让警察追查不到电话是从哪儿打来的。

表示否定目的的从句常可用to prevent+名词/代词+动名词或to avoid+动名词来代替:

He dyed his beard so that we shouldt recognize himto prevent us rec ognizing himto avoid being recognized

他染了胡子,好让我们认不出/为了阻止/为了避免我们认出他。(被动态动名词)

She always shopped in another village so that she wouldnt meet her own neighboursto avoid meeting her own neighbours

她经常去另外一个村子购买东西,以免碰到她的邻居/为了避免碰到她的邻居。

与表示否定目的的从句相比,人们更喜欢用这些不定式短语。


 


337 in caselest

 

A in case

1 in case+主语+动词可跟在陈述句或命令句后面:

I dont let him climb trees in case he tears his trousers

我不让他爬树,以免撕破裤子。

句子的第一个动作常常是为if从句中的动作所做的准备或是对它采取的预防措施。if从句表示将来可能发生的动作。in case+一般现在时常意为because this may happenbecause perhaps this will happenfor fear that this may happen(因为这大概会发生/因为这也许将会发生/以免它会发生)。

in case+一般过去时常意为because this might happenbe cause perhaps this would happenfor fear that this would happen (因为这会发生/因为这将会发生/以免它会发生)。

在这里,无论现在时或过去时都可用should+动词原形来代替。should在此表示更小的可能性,但是这种结构不常见。

2 各种时态与in case连用

Ill make a cake in case someone drops in at the weekend

我将做个蛋糕以免有人周末来。

I carry a spare wheel in case I haveshould have a puncture

我带了个备用轮胎,以免车胎被刺破。

I always keep candles in the house in case there is a power cut

我家里常备有蜡烛,以防断电。

I always kept candles in the house in case there was a power cut

我家里以前常备有蜡烛,以防断电。

(另参见第227节。)

B lest意为for fear that(恐怕),后面跟should

He doesntdidnt dare to leave the house lest someone should recognize him

他不敢出门,怕有人认出他来。

lest除在较正式的书面英语中出现外,一般不常用。


 


 

 

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做的很好,不错不错
[***.249.68.14]2022年05月22日 18时27分50秒

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